Recombinant Human PlGF Protein

(24 citations)   
  • Purity
    >95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA. When Recombinant Human VEGF R1/Flt‑1 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 3516-FL) is immobilized at 0.5 μg/mL, 100 μL/well, the concentration of Recombinant Human PlGF that produces 50% of the optimal binding response is approximately 0.15-0.9 ng/mL.
  • Source
    E. coli-derived Ala21-Arg149
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Ala21
  • Structure / Form
    Disulfide-linked homodimer
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    15 kDa
  • SDS-PAGE
    12-15 kDa, reducing conditions
Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
264-PGB
 
264-PGB/CF
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 200 μg/mL in 4 mM HCl.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 200 μg/mL in 4 mM HCl.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Data Images
When Recombinant Human VEGF R1/Flt-1 Fc Chimera, aa 27-328 (Catalog # 3516-FL) is coated at 0.5 µg/mL, Recombinant Human PlGF (Catalog # 264-PGB) binds with a typical ED50 of 0.15-0.9 ng/mL.
Background: PlGF
Placenta growth factor (PlGF) is a member of the PDGF/VEGF family of growth factors that share a conserved pattern of eight cysteines (1, 2). Alternative splicing results in at least three human mature PlGF forms containing 131 (PlGF-1), 152 (PlGF-2), and 203 (PlGF-3) amino acids (aa) respectively (1, 2). Only PlGF-2 contains a highly basic heparin-binding 21 aa insert at the C-terminus (1). Human PlGF-1 shares 56%, 55%, 74% and 95% aa identity with the comparable isoform of mouse, rat, canine, and equine PlGF, respectively. PlGF is mainly found as variably glycosylated, secreted, 55-60 kDa disulfide linked homodimers (3). Mammalian cells expressing PlGF include villous trophoblasts, decidual cells, erythroblasts, keratinocytes, and some endothelial cells (1, 4-6). Circulating PlGF increases during pregnancy, reaching a peak in mid-gestation; this increase is attenuated in preeclampsia (7). However, deletion of PlGF in the mouse does not affect development or reproduction. Postnatally, mice lacking PlGF show impaired angiogenesis in response to ischemia (8). PlGF binds and signals through VEGF R1/Flt-1 but not VEGF R2/Flk-1/KDR, while VEGF binds both but signals only through the angiogenic receptor, VEGF R2. PlGF and VEGF therefore compete for binding to VEGF R1, allowing high PlGF to discourage VEGF/VEGF R1 binding and promote VEGF/VEGF R2-mediated angiogenesis (1, 4, 8, 9). However, PlGF (especially PlGF-1) and some forms of VEGF can form dimers that decrease the angiogenic effect of VEGF on VEGF R2 (3, 4). PlGF-2, but not PLGF-1, shows heparin-dependent binding of Neuropilin (Npn)-1 and Npn-2 (10, 11). PlGF induces monocyte activation, migration, and production of inflammatory cytokines and VEGF. These activities facilitate wound, bone fracture, and cardiac repair, but also contribute to inflammation in active sickle cell disease and atherosclerosis (5, 6, 8, 12-15). PlGF can also inhibit TIMP3 expression in the spleen, leading to immune triggering of hypertension (16).
  • References:
    1. Hauser, S. and H.A. Weich (1993) Growth Factors 9:259.
    2. Maglione, D. et al. (1993) Oncogene 8:925.
    3. Eriksson, A. et al. (2002) Cancer Cell 1:99.
    4. Ribatti, D. (2008) Angiogenesis 11:215.
    5. Oura, H. et al. (2003) Blood 101:560.
    6. Roncal, C. et al. (2010) Cardiovasc. Res. 86:29.
    7. Levine, R.J. et al. (2004) N. Engl. J. Med. 350:672.
    8. Carmeliet, P. et al. (2001) Nat. Med. 7:575.
    9. Autiero, M. et al. (2003) Nat. Med. 9:936.
    10. Migdal, M. et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273:22272.
    11. Cheng, L. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279:30654.
    12. Perelman, N. et al. (2003) Blood 102:1506.
    13. Cianfarani, F. et al. (2006) Am. J. Pathol. 169:1167.
    14. Maes, C. et al. (2006) J. Clin. Invest. 116:1230.
    15. Iwasaki, H. et al. (2011) PLoS One 6:e24872.
    16. Carnevale, D. et al. (2014) Immunity 41:737.
  • Long Name:
    Placenta Growth Factor
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    5228 (Human); 18654 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    D12S1900; PGF; PGFL; placenta growth factor; placental growth factor; placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-related protein; PlGF; PlGF-2; PLGFplacental growth factor-like; SHGC-10760
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

24 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Placental growth factor silencing ameliorates liver fibrosis and angiogenesis and inhibits activation of hepatic stellate cells in a murine model of chronic liver disease
    Authors: X Li, QY Yao, HC Liu, QW Jin, BL Xu, SC Zhang, CT Tu
    J. Cell. Mol. Med., 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  2. Elevated expression of placental growth factor is associated with airway-wall vascular remodelling and thickening in smokers with asthma
    Authors: D Wu, T Lai, Y Yuan, M Chen, J Xia, W Li, G Pan, B Yuan, Q Lv, Y Li, D Li, B Wu
    Sci Rep, 2017;7(0):43017.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  3. Hypoxia-induced responses by endothelial colony-forming cells are modulated by placental growth factor
    Stem Cell Res Ther, 2016;7(1):173.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  4. MicroRNA 648 Targets ET-1 mRNA and is cotranscriptionally regulated with MICAL3 by PAX5.
    Authors: Li C, Gonsalves C, Eiymo Mwa Mpollo M, Malik P, Tahara S, Kalra V
    Mol Cell Biol, 2015;35(3):514-28.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  5. Interaction of mesenchymal stem cells with fibroblast-like synoviocytes via cadherin-11 promotes angiogenesis by enhanced secretion of placental growth factor.
    Authors: Park, Su-Jung, Kim, Ki-Jo, Kim, Wan-Uk, Cho, Chul-Soo
    J Immunol, 2014;192(7):3003-10.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  6. Elastase induces lung epithelial cell autophagy through placental growth factor: a new insight of emphysema pathogenesis.
    Authors: Hou H, Cheng S, Chung K, Kuo M, Yeh C, Chang B, Lu H, Wang H, Yu C
    Autophagy, 2014;10(9):1509-21.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  7. Characterisation of syncytiotrophoblast vesicles in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia: expression of Flt-1 and endoglin.
    Authors: Tannetta D, Dragovic R, Gardiner C, Redman C, Sargent I
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(2):e56754.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  8. Endorepellin, the angiostatic module of perlecan, interacts with both the alpha2beta1 integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2): a dual receptor antagonism.
    Authors: Goyal A, Pal N, Concannon M, Paul M, Doran M, Poluzzi C, Sekiguchi K, Whitelock JM, Neill T, Iozzo RV
    J. Biol. Chem., 2011;286(29):25947-62.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Recombinant Protein
    Application: Binding Displacement
  9. Placental growth factor neutralising antibodies give limited anti-angiogenic effects in an in vitro organotypic angiogenesis model.
    Authors: Brave SR, Eberlein C, Shibuya M, Wedge SR, Barry ST
    Angiogenesis, 2010;13(4):337-47.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  10. Placenta growth factor (PlGF), a novel inducer of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in sickle cell disease (SCD).
    Authors: Patel N, Sundaram N, Yang M
    J. Biol. Chem., 2010;285(22):16713-22.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  11. VEGF-A and VEGF-F evoke distinct changes in vascular ultrastructure.
    Authors: Matsunaga Y, Yamazaki Y, Suzuki H, Morita T
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2009;379(4):872-5.
    Species: Guinea Pig
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  12. Modulation of angiogenesis by a tetrameric tripeptide that antagonizes vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1.
    Authors: Ponticelli S, Marasco D, Tarallo V, Albuquerque RJ, Mitola S, Takeda A, Stassen JM, Presta M, Ambati J, Ruvo M, De Falco S
    J. Biol. Chem., 2008;283(49):34250-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  13. alpha2beta1 integrin expression in the tumor microenvironment enhances tumor angiogenesis in a tumor cell-specific manner.
    Authors: Zhang Z, Ramirez NE, Yankeelov TE, Li Z, Ford LE, Qi Y, Pozzi A, Zutter MM
    Blood, 2007;111(4):1980-8.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  14. Placental growth factor down-regulates type 1 T helper immune response by modulating the function of dendritic cells.
    Authors: Lin YL, Liang YC, Chiang BL
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2007;82(6):1473-80.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  15. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) is a novel anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic mediator secreted by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dB-cAMP)-differentiated glioblastoma cells.
    Authors: Moreno MJ, Ball M, Andrade MF, McDermid A, Stanimirovic DB
    Glia, 2006;53(8):845-57.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  16. Loss of SPARC-mediated VEGFR-1 suppression after injury reveals a novel antiangiogenic activity of VEGF-A.
    Authors: Nozaki M, Sakurai E, Raisler BJ, Baffi JZ, Witta J, Ogura Y, Brekken RA, Sage EH, Ambati BK, Ambati J
    J. Clin. Invest., 2006;116(2):422-9.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type:
    Application: In Vivo
  17. Placenta growth factor in diabetic wound healing: altered expression and therapeutic potential.
    Authors: Cianfarani F, Zambruno G, Brogelli L, Sera F, Lacal PM, Pesce M, Capogrossi MC, Failla CM, Napolitano M, Odorisio T
    Am. J. Pathol., 2006;169(4):1167-82.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  18. Inhibition of prostate tumor growth and bone remodeling by the vascular targeting agent VEGF121/rGel.
    Authors: Mohamedali KA, Poblenz AT, Sikes CR, Navone NM, Thorpe PE, Darnay BG, Rosenblum MG
    Cancer Res., 2006;66(22):10919-28.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  19. VEGF receptor 1 signaling is essential for osteoclast development and bone marrow formation in colony-stimulating factor 1-deficient mice.
    Authors: Niida S, Kondo T, Hiratsuka S, Hayashi S, Amizuka N, Noda T, Ikeda K, Shibuya M
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2005;102(39):14016-21.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  20. Microvascular patterning is controlled by fine-tuning the Akt signal.
    Authors: Sun JF, Phung T, Shiojima I, Felske T, Upalakalin JN, Feng D, Kornaga T, Dor T, Dvorak AM, Walsh K, Benjamin LE
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2005;102(1):128-33.
    Species: Bovine
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  21. Differential roles of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 in dendritic cell differentiation.
    Authors: Dikov MM, Ohm JE, Ray N, Tchekneva EE, Burlison J, Moghanaki D, Nadaf S, Carbone DP
    J. Immunol., 2005;174(1):215-22.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  22. Impairment in ischemia-induced neovascularization in diabetes: bone marrow mononuclear cell dysfunction and therapeutic potential of placenta growth factor treatment.
    Authors: Tamarat R, Silvestre JS, Le Ricousse-Roussanne S, Barateau V, Lecomte-Raclet L, Clergue M, Duriez M, Tobelem G, Levy BI
    Am. J. Pathol., 2004;164(2):457-66.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  23. Excess placental soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) may contribute to endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and proteinuria in preeclampsia.
    Authors: Maynard SE, Min JY, Merchan J, Lim KH, Mondal S, Stillman IE, Epstein FH, Karumanchi SA
    J. Clin. Invest., 2003;111(5):649-58.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  24. A critical role of placental growth factor in the induction of inflammation and edema formation.
    Authors: Oura H, Bertoncini J, Velasco P, Brown LF, Carmeliet P, Detmar M
    Blood, 2002;101(2):560-7.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
Expand to show all 24 Citations

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