Recombinant Human Progranulin Protein, CF

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2420-PG-050
R&D Systems Recombinant Proteins and Enzymes
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Citations (16)
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Recombinant Human Progranulin Protein, CF Summary

Product Specifications

Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its ability to enhance neurite outgrowth of E16-E18 rat embryonic cortical neurons. Recombinant Human Progranulin/PGRN, immobilized at 10-40 μg/mL on a nitrocellulose coated plate, is able to significantly enhance neurite outgrowth.
Source
Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived human Progranulin/PGRN protein
Thr18-Leu593, with a C-terminal 6-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Thr18
Predicted Molecular Mass
62.6 kDa
SDS-PAGE
90-95 kDa

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2420-PG

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

2420-PG

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 200 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
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Background: Progranulin/PGRN

Progranulin, also known as acrogranin, PC cell-derived growth factor (PCDGF) and epithelin/granulin precursor, is a ubiquitously expressed, 88 kDa, secreted glycoprotein (1 - 3). Structurally, it does not belong to any of the well-established growth factor families (4). Human Progranulin is 593 amino acids (aa) in length and contains a 17 aa signal sequence and 5 potential sites for N-linked glycosylation (Swiss Prot # P28799). It has a highly repetitive organization, containing seven tandem copies of a 55 - 57 aa consensus motif that contains 12 conserved cysteine residues: VXCX5-6CX5CCX8CCX6CCXDX2HCCPX4CX5-6CX2 (1). There is one alternate splice form for human Progranulin. This has a deletion of aa corresponding to aa 377 - 531 of the standard form. Progranulin is secreted as a full length form (2, 4), and may undergo proteolysis leading to the release of numerous peptides made from the seven tandem repeats, called the granulins (5 - 7). Human Progranulin shares 75% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat Progranulin. Progranulin is involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation, as well as differentiation, development, and pathological processes (4). It has been isolated as a differentially expressed gene during mesothelial differentiation (8), macrophage development (9), the development of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis (10), sexual differentiation of the brain (11), and has also been shown to be a mediator of cartilage proliferation and of wound response and tissue repair (4, 12 13). High levels of Progranulin expression have been found to be associated with several human cancers and are believed to contribute to tumorigenesis in breast cancer, clear cell renal carcinoma, invasive ovarian carcinoma, glioblastoma, adipocyte teratoma, and multiple myeloma (4 - 5, 12, 14 - 19). In addition, mutations in the Progranulin gene are a cause of frontotemporal dementia, and increased expression of Progranulin is seen in activated microglia in many neurodegenerative diseases including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, motor neuron disease and Alzheimer's disease (20). Mutations in Progranulin causing neurodegenerative disease indicate that Progranulin is important for neuronal survival (20).

References
  1. Plowman, G.D. et al. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267:13073.
  2. Zhou, J. et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268:10863.
  3. Liu, Y. et al. (2007) BMC Cancer 7:22.
  4. Xu, K. et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282:11347.
  5. Davidson, B. et al. (2004) Cancer 100:2139.
  6. Zanocco-Marani, T. et al. (1999) Cancer Res. 59:5331.
  7. Lu, R. and G. Serrero (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97:3993.
  8. Sun, X. et al. (2004) Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 30:510.
  9. Barreda, D.R. et al. (2004) Dev. Comp. Immunol. 28:727.
  10. Justen, H.P. et al. (2000) Mol. Cell Biol. Res. Commun. 3:165.
  11. Suzuki, M. and M. Nishiahara (2002) Mol. Genet. Metab. 75:31.
  12. He, Z. et al. (2003) Nat. Med. 9:225.
  13. Zhu, J. et al. (2002) Cell 111:867.
  14. He, Z. and A. Bateman (2003) J. Mol. Med. 81:600.
  15. Bateman, A. et al. (1990) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 173:1161.
  16. Gonzalez, E.M. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:38113.
  17. Jones, M.B. et al. (2003) Gynecol. Oncol. 88:S136.
  18. Wang, W. et al. (2003) Clin. Cancer Res. 9:2221.
  19. Zhang, H. and G. Serrero (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95:14202.
  20. Baker, M. et al. (2006) Nature 442:916.
Entrez Gene IDs
2896 (Human); 14824 (Mouse)
Alternate Names
Acrogranin; CLN11; GEP; GP88; granulin precursor; GRN; PCDGF; PEPI; PGRN; Proepithelin; Progranulin

Citations for Recombinant Human Progranulin Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

16 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Regulated control of gene therapies by drug-induced splicing
    Authors: AM Monteys, AA Hundley, PT Ranum, L Tecedor, A Muehlmatt, E Lim, D Lukashev, R Sivasankar, BL Davidson
    Nature, 2021;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Reference Standard
  2. Progranulin modulates cartilage-specific gene expression via sirtuin 1-mediated deacetylation of the transcription factors SOX9 and P65
    Authors: D Feng, X Kang, R Wang, H Chen, K Zhang, W Feng, H Li, Y Zhu, S Wu
    J. Biol. Chem., 2020;0(0):.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Cell Culture
  3. Progranulin Adsorbs to Polypropylene Tubes and Disrupts Functional Assays: Implications for Research, Biomarker Studies, and Therapeutics
    Authors: S Gururaj, PJ Sampognaro, AR Argouarch, AW Kao
    Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2020;14(0):602235.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Cell Culture
  4. Homocysteine Impairs Endothelial Cell Barrier Function and Angiogenic Potential via the Progranulin/EphA2 Pathway
    Authors: D Tian, Q Qin, M Li, X Li, Q Xu, Q Lv
    Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2020;11(0):614760.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. Progranulin modulates cartilage-specific gene expression via sirtuin 1-mediated deacetylation of the transcription factors SOX9 and P65
    Authors: D Feng, X Kang, R Wang, H Chen, K Zhang, W Feng, H Li, Y Zhu, S Wu
    J. Biol. Chem., 2020;0(0):.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Cell Culture
  6. Development of a novel and rapid measurement system for growth differentiation factor-15, progranulin, and osteopontin in uterine sarcoma
    Authors: M Maeno, T Mizutani, H Tsuyoshi, S Yamada, S Ishikane, S Kawabe, K Nishimura, M Yamada, K Miyamoto, Y Yoshida
    Endocr. J., 2019;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
    Applications: Standard
  7. Progranulin attenuates liver fibrosis by downregulating the inflammatory response
    Authors: W Yoo, J Lee, KH Noh, S Lee, D Jung, MH Kabir, D Park, C Lee, KS Kwon, JS Kim, S Kim
    Cell Death Dis, 2019;10(10):758.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. Dissecting the Prognostic Significance and Functional Role of Progranulin in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
    Authors: L Schulze-Ed, C Dürr, S Öztürk, M Zucknick, A Benner, V Kalter, S Ohl, V Close, P Wuchter, S Stilgenbau, P Lichter, M Seiffert
    Cancers (Basel), 2019;11(6):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  9. Targeting Tyro3 ameliorates a model of PGRN-mutant FTLD-TDP via tau-mediated synaptic pathology
    Authors: K Fujita, X Chen, H Homma, K Tagawa, M Amano, A Saito, S Imoto, H Akatsu, Y Hashizume, K Kaibuchi, S Miyano, H Okazawa
    Nat Commun, 2018;9(1):433.
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. Progranulin promotes peripheral nerve regeneration and reinnervation: role of notch signaling
    Mol Neurodegener, 2016;11(1):69.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  11. High-throughput epitope binning assays on label-free array-based biosensors can yield exquisite epitope discrimination that facilitates the selection of monoclonal antibodies with functional activity.
    Authors: Abdiche, Yasmina, Miles, Adam, Eckman, Josh, Foletti, Davide, Van Blarcom, Thomas J, Yeung, Yik Andy, Pons, Jaume, Rajpal, Arvind
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(3):e92451.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  12. Regulation of progranulin expression in human microglia and proteolysis of progranulin by matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12).
    Authors: Suh HS, Choi N, Tarassishin L, Lee SC
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(4):e35115.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  13. Widespread potential for growth-factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors.
    Authors: Wilson TR, Fridlyand J, Yan Y, Penuel E, Burton L, Chan E, Peng J, Lin E, Wang Y, Sosman J, Ribas A, Li J, Moffat J, Sutherlin DP, Koeppen H, Merchant M, Neve R, Settleman J
    Nature, 2012;487(7408):505-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  14. Human tumors instigate granulin-expressing hematopoietic cells that promote malignancy by activating stromal fibroblasts in mice.
    Authors: Elkabets M, Gifford AM, Scheel C, Nilsson B, Reinhardt F, Bray MA, Carpenter AE, Jirstrom K, Magnusson K, Ebert BL, Ponten F, Weinberg RA, McAllister SS
    J. Clin. Invest., 2011;121(2):784-99.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  15. Serum biomarker for progranulin-associated frontotemporal lobar degeneration.
    Authors: Sleegers K, Brouwers N, Van Damme P, Engelborghs S, Gijselinck I, van der Zee J, Peeters K, Mattheijssens M, Cruts M, Vandenberghe R, De Deyn PP, Robberecht W, Van Broeckhoven C
    Ann. Neurol., 2009;65(5):603-9.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: ELISA (Standard)
  16. Progranulin functions as a neurotrophic factor to regulate neurite outgrowth and enhance neuronal survival.
    Authors: Van Damme P, Van Hoecke A, Lambrechts D, Vanacker P, Bogaert E, van Swieten J, Carmeliet P, Van Den Bosch L, Robberecht W
    J. Cell Biol., 2008;181(1):37-41.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: ELISA (Standard)

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