Recombinant Human VSTM4 Fc Chimera Protein, CF Summary
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 200 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||
Recombinant Human VSTM4 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 2086-VT) inhibits IFN-gamma secretion byhuman peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of anti-CD3 antibody. TheED50 for this effect is 1-10 μg/mL.
2 μg/lane of Recombinant Human VSTM4 (Catalog # 2086-VT) was resolved with SDS-PAGE underreducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Bluestaining, showing bands at 58-74 kDa and 120-150 kDa, respectively.
V-set and transmembrane domain-containing protein 4 (VSTM4) is a single-pass type I membrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily. Human VSTM4 is synthesized as a 320 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 23 aa signal sequence, 157 aa extracellular region, 21 aa TM domain, and 119 aa cytoplasmic tail. In humans, part of the extracellular region is cleaved into a 50 aa secreted peptide (aa 55-104) compared to mouse, which is cleaved into a 49 aa peptide (aa 55-103) (1). Because of its role in enhancing L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC) currents in photoreceptors, this peptide was named peptide Lv (1). Peptide Lv is expressed in the central nervous system and a variety of organs including spleen, intestine, retina, and lung (1, 2). The peptide may have possible roles in regulating the cardiovascular system and L-VGCC dependent neural plasticity (1, 2). Human VSTM4 gene is located on chromosome 10, which may be linked to late-onset Alzheimer's disease (3). Down-regulation of VSTM4 increased tamoxifen sensitivity and suppressed growth in cultured breast cancer cells (4). Within the ECD, human VSTM4 shares 87% and 85% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat VSTM4, respectively. The biological functions of VSTM4 remain unknown. Our in-house data show that VSTM4 inhibits the human T cell activation, including anti-CD3 induced IL-2 and IFN-gamma secretion, and T cell proliferation.
- Shi, L. et al. (2012) PLoS. 7:e43091.
- Shi, L. et al. (2015) Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1853:1154.
- Grupe, A. et al. (2006) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 78:78.
- Mendes-Pereira, A. et al. (2012) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109:2730.
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