Recombinant Mouse LIX Protein

Formulations:
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
433-MC-025
Recombinant Mouse LIX Protein Data
1 Image
Product Details
Citations (3)
FAQs
Reviews

Recombinant Mouse LIX Protein Summary

Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Endotoxin Level
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its ability to chemoattract BaF3 mouse pro‑B cells transfected with human CXCR2. The ED50 for this effect is 0.03-0.1 µg/mL. Measured by its ability to induce myeloperoxidase release from cytochalasin B-treated human neutrophils. Schröder, J.M. et al. (1987) J. Immunol. 139:3474. The ED50 for this effect is 1-3 μg/mL.
Source
E. coli-derived mouse LIX protein
Val45-Ala118
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Val45
Predicted Molecular Mass
8 kDa

Product Datasheets

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

433-MC

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 25 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

433-MC/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Data Image

Bioactivity View Larger

Recombinant Mouse LIX (Catalog # 433-MC) chemoattracts BaF3 mouse pro B cells transfected with human CXCR2. The ED50for this effect is 0.03-0.1 µg/mL.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

=
÷

Background: LIX

LIX (Liposaccharide-Induced CXC chemokine; also GARG-8) is a secreted 8-10 kDa member of the ELR+ class, CXC family, chemokine superfamily of molecules (1-4).  It is one of five CXC chemokines in mouse, and serves as a functional equivalent of human ENA-78 and GCP-2.  Mouse LIX is synthesized as a 132 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains an extended 40 aa signal sequence plus a 92 aa mature peptide (aa 41-132) (1, 5).  No glycosylation has been reported for LIX.  Depending upon the author, the 92 aa full-length isoform is typically referred to as either simply LIX, or LIX (1-92).  Shorter isoforms have an accompanying range designation.  Although LIX has (marginal) activity, proteolytic processing is necessary for full bioactivity (5, 6).  To date, over 25 enzymatically-generated isoforms have been experimentally noted, ranging from 69-92 aa in length (6).  These may show only N-terminal, C-terminal, or dual-end processing, with removal of up to 10 N-terminal amino acids (#41-48) and 13 or 14 C-terminal amino acids (#119-132).  In vivo, it appears that multiple MMPs act sequentially (and redundantly) to generate a "standard" LIX isoform that consists of aa 5-78 of the mature form.  It is suggested that initially, MMP-2 is induced locally, and cleaves LIX 1-92 between Ser4-Val5.  This truncation results in an active product (LIX [5-92]) that chemoattracts PMNs.  Newly arriving PMNs now secrete MMP-9, which performs the same cleavage as MMP-2, chemoattracting more PMNs.  Neutrophil-derived MMP-8 is secreted next, which cleaves both the Ser4-Val5 and Lys79-Arg80 bonds, creating LIX (5-79) (7, 8).  Although somewhat unclear, macrophage derived MMP-12 also contributes to LIX activation, and in some circumstances cleaves the ELR motif of activated chemokines (but not LIX), rendering them inactive and downmodulating the inflammatory response (9).  Over aa 41-119 of the precursor, mouse LIX shares 73% and 63% aa sequence identity with rat LIX and human GCP-2, respectively.  Mouse LIX is known to be active on human cells (6).  Cells known to express LIX vary widely and include oligodendroglia (10), adipose tissue stem cells and macrophages (11, 12), platelets and endothelial cells (13), colonic epithelium (14), cardiomyocytes (15), Type II greater alveolar cells and ileal enterocytes (16), hepatocytes (17) and fibroblasts from multiple tissues (18, 19, 20). 

LIX is both constitutively expressed (16), and induced in response to a variety of stimuli, including LPS (18, 21), TNF-alpha (22), mast cell protease-6 (19), leptin (14), and oncostatin M (20).  Circulating LIX has two known signaling receptors, CXCR2 and CXCR1. Although the former is considered most important, the latter may prove to have nonredundant functions (6, 21, 23).  LIX also binds to DARC, a non-signaling receptor prominently expressed on erythrocytes.  Although non-signaling, this receptor serves as a sink or depot for LIX, keeping it from activating CXCR1 and CXCR2 (24).  Functionally, LIX is best known as a chemoattractant for neutrophils (5, 9, 15).  But it also reportedly chemoattracts macrophages and induces production of NO (14, 25), regulates gut IL-17 and G-CSF secretion (16), promotes TNF-alpha expression from mast cells and macrophages (26), and induces neurite outgrowth and protects against neuronal apoptosis by serving as an atypical growth factor (10).

References
  1. Hall-Glenn, F. and K.M. Lyons (2011) Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 68:3209.
  2. Bradham, D.M. et al. (1991) J. Cell Biol. 114:1285.
  3. Gao, R. and D.R. Brigstock (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279:8848.
  4. Schober, J.M. et al. (2002) Blood 99:4457.
  5. Heng, E.C.K. et al. (2006) J. Cell Biochem. 98:409.
  6. Jedsadayanmata, A. et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274:24321.
  7. Gao, R. et al. (2003) Hepatol. Res. 27:214.
  8. Mercurio, S. et al. (2004) Development 131:2137.
  9. Wahab, N.A. et al. (2005) J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16:340.
  10. Abreu, J.G. et al. (2002) Nat. Cell Biol. 4:599.
  11. Hashimoto, G. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277:36288.
  12. Khodosevich, K. et al. (2013) Neuron 79:1136.
  13. Shi-Wen, X. et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281:10715.
  14. Lee, C.H. et al. (2010) J. Clin. Invest. 120:3340.
  15. Canalis, E. et al. (2010) Endocrinology 151:3490.
  16. Nakanishi, T. et al. (2000) Endocrinology 141:264.
  17. Ivkovic, S. et al. (2003) Development 130:2779.
  18. Hall-Glenn, F. et al. (2012) PLoS One 7:e30562.
  19. Shimo, T. et al. (1999) J. Biochem. 126:137.
Entrez Gene IDs
20311 (Mouse); 60665 (Rat)
Alternate Names
LIX

Citations for Recombinant Mouse LIX Protein

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

3 Citations: Showing 1 - 3
Filter your results:

Filter by:

  1. Lung CD4+ resident memory T cells remodel epithelial responses to accelerate neutrophil recruitment during pneumonia
    Authors: AT Shenoy, GA Wasserman, EI Arafa, AK Wooten, NMS Smith, IMC Martin, MR Jones, LJ Quinton, JP Mizgerd
    Mucosal Immunol, 2019;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  2. Allergic sensitization through the airway primes Th17-dependent neutrophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness.
    Authors: Wilson RH, Whitehead GS, Nakano H, Free ME, Kolls JK, Cook DN
    Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 2009;180(8):720-30.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  3. Circulating CXC-chemokine concentrations in a murine intestinal ischemia-reperfusion model.
    Authors: Maheshwari A, Christensen RD, Calhoun DA
    Fetal Pediatr Pathol, 2004;23(2):145-57.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: ELISA (Standard)

FAQs

No product specific FAQs exist for this product, however you may

View all Proteins and Enzyme FAQs

Reviews for Recombinant Mouse LIX Protein

There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to review Recombinant Mouse LIX Protein and earn rewards!

Have you used Recombinant Mouse LIX Protein?

Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.

$25/€18/£15/$25CAN/¥75 Yuan/¥1250 Yen for a review with an image

$10/€7/£6/$10 CAD/¥70 Yuan/¥1110 Yen for a review without an image

Submit a Review