Recombinant Mouse Lymphotoxin alpha1/beta2 Protein

Carrier Free

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
9968-LY-025/CF

With Carrier

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
9968-LY-025
Recombinant Mouse Lymphotoxin alpha1/beta2 Protein Bioactivity
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Product Details
Citations (1)
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Recombinant Mouse Lymphotoxin alpha1/beta2 Protein Summary

Product Specifications

Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured in a cell proliferation assay using NIH‑3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. The ED50 for this effect is 0.3-2.1 ng/mL.
Source
Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived mouse Lymphotoxin protein
Mouse LT alpha
(Lys59-Leu202)
Accession # P09225
GGGGS
Mouse LT beta
(Leu153-Gly306) Accession # P41155
GGGGS
Mouse LT beta
(Leu153-Gly306) Accession # P41155
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Lys59
Structure / Form
GS-linked heterotrimer
Predicted Molecular Mass
50 kDa
SDS-PAGE
42-63 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

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9968-LY (with carrier)

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9968-LY/CF (carrier free)

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

9968-LY

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage:
  • 12 months from date of receipt, ≤ -20 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, ≤ -20 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

9968-LY/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage:
  • 12 months from date of receipt, ≤ -20 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, ≤ -20 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Data Images

Bioactivity Recombinant Mouse Lymphotoxin alpha1/beta2 Protein Bioactivity View Larger

Recombinant Mouse Lymphotoxin alpha 1/ beta 2 (Catalog # 9968-LY) induces NIH‑3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell proliferation. The ED50 for this effect is 0.3-2.1 ng/mL.

SDS-PAGE Recombinant Mouse Lymphotoxin alpha1/beta2 Protein SDS-PAGE View Larger

2 μg/lane of Recombinant Mouse Lymphotoxin alpha1/beta2 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® blue staining, showing bands at 42-63 kDa.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

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Background: Lymphotoxin

Lymphotoxin alpha (LT alpha) and Lymphotoxin beta (LT beta) are pro-inflammatory TNF superfamily ligands that play important roles in immune system development (1, 2). Mouse LT alpha cDNA encodes a 202 amino acid (aa) secreted soluble protein with a 33 aa signal sequence. The mature mouse LT alpha shares 75% aa sequence identity with human LT alpha (3, 4). Mouse LT beta cDNA encodes a 306 aa type II membrane protein with a 27 aa N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a 21 aa transmembrane region, and a 258 aa extracellular domain. It shares 73% aa sequence identity with human LT beta within common regions of their extracellular domains (5). Secreted LT alpha assembles as a soluble homotrimer, LT alpha 3. In addition, secreted LT alpha also complexes with the membrane associated LT beta to generate two types of heterotrimers, LT alpha 1/beta 2 and LT alpha 2/beta 1 (5). The soluble LT alpha 3 binds both TNF RI (p55) and TNF RII (p75). In contrast, the predominant membrane-bound heterotrimer, LT alpha 1/beta 2, binds only to the lymphotoxin beta receptor (LT beta R). LT alpha 2/beta 1 is capable of binding LT beta R, TNF RI (p55), and TNF RII (p75). LT plays a role in normal lymphoid organogenesis (6, 7). The LT alpha 1/beta 2 heterotrimer binds and activates the LT beta R/TNFRSF3 which is expressed on macrophages, dendritic cells, hepatocytes, intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), follicular dendritic cells (FDC), and high endothelial venules (HEV) (2, 8, 9). LT beta R also serves as a receptor for LIGHT/TNFSF14 (10). LT alpha 1/beta 2 promotes the development of FDC networks and HEV in lymphoid tissue, the class switching of immature B cells for IgA production, and the production of homeostatic IL-22 by ILCs (11-14). It can be shed by ADAM17 or MMP-8 mediated cleavage, and the released heterotrimer circulates in the serum and is elevated in synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients (15).

References
  1. Lu, T.T. and J.L. Browning (2014) Front. Immunol. 5:47.
  2. Upadhyay, V. and Y.-X. Fu (2014) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 25:227.
  3. Gray, P.W. et al. (1984) Nature 312:721.
  4. Nedwin, G.E. et al. (1985) J. Cell Biochem. 29:171.
  5. Browning, J.L. et al. (1993) Cell 72:847.
  6. Ettinger R. et al. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:13102.
  7. Cuff, C.A. et al. (1998) J. Immunol. 161:6853.
  8. Sudhamsu, J. et al. (2013) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110:19896.
  9. Crowe, P.D. et al. (1994) Science 264:707.
  10. Eldredge, J. et al. (2006) Biochemistry 45:10117.
  11. Kruglov, A.A. et al. (2013) Science 342:1243.
  12. Futterer, A. et al. (1998) Immunity 9:59.
  13. Koni, P.A. et al. (1997) Immunity 6:491.
  14. Ota, N. et al. (2011) Nat. Immunol. 12:941.
  15. Young, J. et al. (2010) Cytokine 51:78.
Entrez Gene IDs
4049 (Human); 16992 (Mouse); 102138497 (Cynomolgus Monkey)
Alternate Names
LT; Lymphotoxin alpha; Lymphotoxin; tnfb; TNFSF1; TNLG1E

Citation for Recombinant Mouse Lymphotoxin alpha1/beta2 Protein

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

1 Citation: Showing 1 - 1

  1. EphA2 contributes to disruption of the blood-brain barrier in cerebral malaria
    Authors: TK Darling, PN Mimche, C Bray, B Umaru, LM Brady, C Stone, CE Eboumbou M, TE Lane, LS Ayong, TJ Lamb
    PLoS Pathog., 2020;16(1):e1008261.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay

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