Recombinant Mouse TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Isoform A His Protein CF Summary
Tyr22-Gly237, with a C-terminal 6-His tag
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Recombinant Mouse TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Isoform A His-tag (Catalog # 10700-TM) inhibits the proliferation of PHA-stimulated human T lymphoblasts. The ED50 for this effect is 0.25‑2.0 μg/mL.
2 μg/lane of Recombinant Mouse TIM-1/KIM-1/HAVCR Isoform A His-tag (Catalog # 10700-TM) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Blue staining, showing bands at 47-62 kDa.
TIM‑1 (T cell‑immunoglobulin‑mucin; also KIM‑1 and Tapr) is a 70-80 kDa, type I transmembrane glycoprotein member of the TIM family of immunoglobulin superfamily molecules (1, 2, 3, 4). This gene family is involved in the regulation of Th1 and Th2‑cell‑mediated immunity. In mouse, there are eight known TIM genes (# 1-8) vs. only three genes in human (# 1, 3 & 4) (1, 2). Mouse TIM‑1 and ‑2 are counterparts of human TIM‑1, while mouse TIM‑5 through TIM‑8 have no human counterparts (2). Mouse TIM‑1 (isoform 2) is synthesized as a 282 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 21 aa signal sequence, a 193 aa extracellular domain (ECD), a 21 aa transmembrane segment and a 47 aa cytoplasmic domain (5, 6). The ECD contains one V‑type Ig‑like domain and a mucin region characterized by multiple T‑S‑P motifs. The mucin region undergoes extensive O‑linked glycosylation. The mouse TIM‑1 gene is highly polymorphic and, based on rat, may undergo alternate splicing (4, 6). One isoform (termed isoform 1) possesses a 23 aa insertion after Pro182 (GenBank # NP_599099). Another splice variant (of isoform 1) shows a 15 aa deletion in the mucin region of the ECD (6). This difference is associated with a decreased susceptibility to asthma. In human, TIM‑1 is known to circulate as a soluble form that arises from cleavage by an undefined MMP, releasing an 85 ‑ 90 kDa soluble molecule (7). In mouse, a 60-65 kDa soluble form has also been detected (in urine) that presumably arises from proteolytic processing (8). In‑house data from R&D Systems Inc. has demonstrated the presence of soluble TIM‑1 in mouse circulation. The ECD of mouse TIM‑1 shares 37% and 81% aa sequence identity with human and rat TIM‑1 ECD, respectively. Reported ligands for TIM‑1 include TIM‑4, phosphatidylserine, P-Selectin and the hepatitis A virus (3, 9, 10, 11). TIM‑1 ligation induces T cell proliferation and promotes cytokine production (1, 12). In particular, it induces IL‑4 production, and requires the TIM‑1 cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphorylation motif (5). TIM-1 also serves as a cellular entry receptor for various viruses, including hepatitis A virus, Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus and has been indicated as a possible receptor for SARS-CoV-2 (9, 13, 14).
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- Ichimura, T. et al. (2020) doi: 10.1101/2020.09.16.20190694. Preprint.
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