Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 B.1.2 S1 Subunit His-tag Protein, CF
Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 B.1.2 S1 Subunit His-tag Protein, CF Summary
Val16-Pro681 (Asp614Gly, Gln677Pro), with a C-terminal 6-His tag
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 B.1.2 Spike S1 Subunit His-tag (Catalog # 10822-CV) binds Recombinant Human ACE-2 His-tag (933-ZN) in a functional ELISA.
2 μg/lane of Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 B.1.2 S1 Subunit His-tag Protein (Catalog # 10822-CV) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Blue staining, showing bands at 105-118 kDa.
Background: Spike S1 Subunit
SARS-CoV-2, which causes the global pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), belongs to a family of viruses known as coronaviruses that are commonlycomprised of four structural proteins: Spike protein(S), Envelope protein (E), Membrane protein (M), and Nucleocapsid protein (N) (1). SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein (S Protein) is a glycoprotein that mediates membrane fusion and viral entry. The S protein is homotrimeric, with each ~180-kDa monomer consisting of two subunits, S1 and S2 (2). In SARS-CoV-2, as with most coronaviruses, proteolytic cleavage of the S protein into two distinct peptides, S1 and S2 subunits, is required for activation. The S1 subunit is focused on attachment of the protein to the host receptor, while the S2 subunit is involved with cell fusion (3-5). A metallopeptidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), has been identified as a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2 through interaction with a receptor binding domain (RBD) located at the C-terminus of S1 subunit (6,7). The S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 shares 65% amino acid (aa) sequence identity with the S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-1, but only 22% aa sequence identity with the S1 subunit of MERS-CoV. The differences in aa sequence identity is consistent with the finding that SARS and MERS bind different cellular receptors (8). The S Protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus binds ACE-2 with higher affinity and faster binding kinetics than its SARS-CoV-1 counterpart (9). Before binding to the ACE-2 receptor, structural analysis of the S1 trimer shows that only one of the three RBD domains in the trimeric structure is in the "up" conformation. This is an unstable and transient state that passes between trimeric subunits but is nevertheless an exposed state to be targeted for neutralizing antibody therapy (10). Polyclonal antibodies to the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 S1 subunit have been shown to inhibit interaction with the ACE-2 receptor, confirming RBD as an attractive target for vaccinations or antiviral therapy (11). There is also promising work showing that the RBD may be used to detect presence of neutralizing antibodies present in a patient's bloodstream, consistent with developed immunity after exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 virus (12). Lastly, it has been demonstrated the S Protein can invade host cells through the CD147/EMMPRIN receptor and mediate membrane fusion (13, 14). Several emerging SARS-CoV-2 genomes have been identified including the B.1.2 variant (15). Several B.1.2 sub-lineages have been identified which include D614G and Q677P mutations in the RBD (15). Both the D614G and Q667P mutations are proposed to introduce conformational changes for enhanced cleavage at the S1/S2 junction and this additional processing is thought to help with viral entry and transmissibility (15, 16).
- Wu, F. et al. (2020) Nature 579:265.
- Tortorici, M.A. and D. Veesler (2019) Adv. Virus Res. 105:93.
- Bosch, B.J. et al. (2003) J. Virol. 77:8801.
- Belouzard, S. et al. (2009) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106:5871.
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- Li, W. et al. (2003) Nature 426:450.
- Wong, S.K. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279:3197.
- Jiang, S. et al. (2020) Trends. Immunol. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2020.03.007.
- Ortega, J.T. et al. (2020) EXCLI J. 19:410.
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- Tai, W. et al. (2020) Cell. Mol. Immunol. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2020.03.007.
- Okba, N.M.A. et al. (2020) Emerg. Infect. Dis. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2607.200841.
- Wang, X. et al. (2020) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0424-9.
- Wang, K. et al. (2020) bioRxiv https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.14.988345v1.
- Hodcroft E.B. et al. (2021) medRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.12.21251658.
- Bhattacharyya, C. et al. (2020) bioRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.04.075911.
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