Catalog Number: 0111
Chemical Name: (2S,3S,4R)-2-Carboxy-4-isopropyl-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid
Biological Activity
EAAT2(GLT1)-selective non-transportable inhibitor of L-glutamate and L-aspartate uptake (Ki = 23 μM). 130-fold selective over EAAT1 and EAAT3 (Ki > 3 mM). Also available as part of the Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter Inhibitor Tocriset™.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
  • Formula:
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 25 mM in water
  • Storage:
    Store at RT
  • CAS No:
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Background References
  1. Functional comparisons of three glutamate transporter subtypes cloned from human motor cortex.
    Arriza et al.
    J.Neurosci., 1994;14:5559
  2. The neuronal and epithelial high affinity glutamate transporter, insights into structure and mechanism of transport.
    Kanal et al.
    J.Biol.Chem., 1994;269:20599
  3. Effects of dihydrokainic acid on extracellular amino acids and neuronal excitability in the in vivo rat hippocampus.
    Munoz et al.
    Neuropharmacology, 1987;26:1

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Dihydrokainic acid include:

Showing Results 1 - 10 of 13

  1. Functional changes in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia.
    Authors: Campbell Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  2. Appearance of fast astrocytic component in voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neural activity.
    Authors: Pál Et al.
    Mol Brain
  3. Conditional deletion of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 reveals that astrocytic GLT-1 protects against fatal epilepsy while neuronal GLT-1 contributes significantly to glutamate uptake into synaptosomes.
    Authors: Petr Et al.
    J Neurosci
  4. δ-Opioid receptors up-regulate excitatory amino acid transporters in mouse astrocytes.
    Authors: Liang Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol
  5. Pharmacological inhibitions of glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 compromise glutamate transport in photoreceptor to ON-bipolar cell synapses.
    Authors: Tse Et al.
    Vision Res
  6. Disruption of Eaat2b, a glutamate transporter, results in abnormal motor behaviors in developing zebrafish.
    Authors: McKeown Et al.
    Dev Biol
  7. Up-regulation of spinal glutamate transporters contributes to anti-hypersensitive effects of valproate in rats after peripheral nerve injury.
    Authors: Hobo Et al.
    Neurosci Lett
  8. Sensory and cortical activation of distinct glial cell subtypes in the somatosensory thalamus of young rats.
    Authors: Parri Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci
  9. Ethanol disrupts NMDA receptor and astroglial EAAT2 modulation of Kv2.1 potassium channels in hippocampus.
    Authors: Mulholland Et al.
  10. Astrocytic dysfunction in epileptogenesis: consequence of altered potassium and glutamate homeostasis?
    Authors: David Et al.
    J Neurosci
  11. White matter vulnerability to ischemic injury increases with age because of enhanced excitotoxicity.
    Authors: Baltan Et al.
    J Neurosci
  12. Selective overexpression of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) in astrocytes enhances neuroprotection from moderate but not severe hypoxia-ischemia.
    Authors: Weller Et al.
  13. Pharmacological Induction of Ischemic Tolerance by Glutamate Transporter-1 (EAAT2) Upregulation.
    Authors: Chu Et al.
Expand to show all
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