Human Dkk-1 Quantikine ELISA Kit

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Human Dkk-1 ELISA Cell Culture Supernate Standard Curve
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Product Details
Citations (21)
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Human Dkk-1 Quantikine ELISA Kit Summary

Assay Length
4.5 hours
Sample Type & Volume Required Per Well
Cell Culture Supernates (50 uL), Serum-free Cell Culture Supernates (50 uL), Serum (10 uL), Platelet-poor EDTA Plasma (50 uL), Platelet-poor Heparin Plasma (50 uL)
0.948 pg/mL
Assay Range
9.4 - 600 pg/mL (Cell Culture Supernates, Serum-free Cell Culture Supern, Serum, Platelet-poor EDTA Plasma, Platelet-poor Heparin Plasma)
Natural and recombinant human Dkk-1.
< 0.5% cross-reactivity observed with available related molecules.< 50% cross-species reactivity observed with species tested.
No significant interference observed with available related molecules.

Product Summary

The Quantikine® Human Dkk-1 immunoassay is a 4.5 hour solid phase ELISA designed to measure human Dkk-1 in cell culture supernates, serum-free cell culture supernates, serum, and platelet-poor plasma. It contains Sf 21-expressed recombinant human Dkk-1 and has been shown to accurately quantitate the recombinant factor. Results obtained using natural human Dkk-1 showed dose-response curves that were parallel to the standard curves obtained using the Quantikine® kit standards. These results indicate that this kit can be used to determine relative mass values of natural human Dkk-1.


Intra-Assay Precision (Precision within an assay) Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess intra-assay precision
Inter-Assay Precision (Precision between assays) Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty separate assays to assess inter-assay precision. Assays were performed by at least three technicians using two lots of components

Cell Culture Supernates, Serum-free Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, Platelet-poor EDTA Plasma, Platelet-poor Heparin Plasma

Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Sample 1 2 3 1 2 3
n 20 20 20 20 20 20
Mean (pg/mL) 75.6 187 360 75.6 192 372
Standard Deviation 2.21 3.28 9.48 5.81 16.7 30.1
CV% 2.9 1.8 2.6 7.7 8.7 8.1


Sample Type Average % Recovery Range %
Cell Culture Media (n=4) 91 83-101
Platelet-poor EDTA Plasma (n=4) 95 91-98
Platelet-poor Heparin Plasma (n=4) 99 93-105
Serum-free Cell Culture Media (n=4) 82 77-90


To assess the linearity of the assay, samples containing and/or spiked with high concentrations of human Dkk-1 were serially diluted with calibrator diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
Human Dkk-1 ELISA Linearity
Human Dkk-1 ELISA Linearity

Scientific Data

Human Dkk-1 ELISA Cell Culture Supernate Standard Curve

Human Dkk-1 ELISA Standard Curve

Human Dkk-1 ELISA Serum/Plasma Standard Curve

Product Datasheets

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Preparation and Storage

The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.

Background: Dkk-1

Members of the dickkopf-related protein family (Dkk-1, -2, -3, and -4) are secreted proteins with two cysteine-rich domains separated by a linker region. Dkk-3 and -4 also have one prokineticin domain. Dkk-1, -2, and -4 function as antagonists of canonical Wnt signaling by binding to LRP5/6, preventing interaction of LRP5/6 with Wnt-Frizzled complexes. Dkk-1, -2, and -4 also bind cell surface Kremen-1 or -2 and promote the internalization of LRP5/6. Antagonistic activity of Dkk-3 has not been demonstrated. Dkk proteins have distinct patterns of expression in adult and embryonic tissues and have a wide range of effects on tissue development and morphogenesis. The Dkk family also includes Soggy, which is homologous to Dkk-3 but not to the other family members. Soggy has not been shown to inhibit Wnt signaling, and its role in the pathway is unclear.

Long Name:
Entrez Gene IDs:
22943 (Human); 13380 (Mouse); 102123735 (Cynomolgus Monkey)
Alternate Names:
dickkopf (Xenopus laevis) homolog 1; dickkopf homolog 1 (Xenopus laevis); dickkopf related protein-1; Dickkopf-1; dickkopf-related protein 1; Dkk1; Dkk-1; hDkk-1; SKdickkopf-1 like
⚠ WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including N,N-Dimethylforamide, which is known to the State of California to cause cancer. For more information, go to

Citations for Human Dkk-1 Quantikine ELISA Kit

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

21 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. DKK1 promotes tumor immune evasion and impedes anti-PD-1 treatment by inducing immunosuppressive macrophages in gastric cancer
    Authors: T Shi, Y Zhang, Y Wang, X Song, H Wang, X Zhou, K Liang, Y Luo, K Che, X Wang, Y Pan, F Liu, J Yang, Q Liu, L Yu, B Liu, J Wei
    Cancer Immunology Research, 2022;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  2. Serum granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is increased in patients with active radiographic axial spondyloarthritis and persists despite anti-TNF treatment
    Authors: C Papagoras, S Tsiami, A Chrysantho, I Mitroulis, X Baraliakos
    Arthritis Research & Therapy, 2022;24(1):195.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  3. Cyanidin 3-O-arabinoside suppresses DHT-induced dermal papilla cell senescence by modulating p38-dependent ER-mitochondria contacts
    Authors: YH Jung, CW Chae, GE Choi, HC Shin, JR Lim, HS Chang, J Park, JH Cho, MR Park, HJ Lee, HJ Han
    Journal of Biomedical Science, 2022;29(1):17.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  4. Dickkopf-1 Promotes Angiogenesis and is a Biomarker for Hepatic Stem Cell-like Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Authors: T Suda, T Yamashita, H Sunagozaka, H Okada, K Nio, Y Sakai, T Yamashita, E Mizukoshi, M Honda, S Kaneko
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2022;23(5):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  5. Assessment of Serum sRANKL, sRANKL/OPG Ratio, and Other Bone Turnover Markers with the Estimated 10-Year Risk of Major and Hip Osteoporotic Fractures in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Authors: CA Nava-Valdi, JM Ponce-Guar, AM Saldaña-Cr, EG Corona-San, M Ramirez-Vi, EE Perez-Guer, JD Murillo-Sa, B Contreras-, ML Vazquez-Vi, F Gonzalez-P, D Bonilla-La, H Jacobo-Cue, JD Centeno-Va, G Echeverria, S Cerpa-Cruz, MF Alcaraz-Lo, EG Cardona-Mu, M Salazar-Pa, L Gonzalez-L, JI Gamez-Nava
    BioMed Research International, 2021;2021(0):5567666.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  6. Circulating cytokines present in multiple myeloma patients inhibit the osteoblastic differentiation of adipose stem cells
    Authors: L Kobari, M Auclair, O Piau, N Ferrand, M Zaoui, F Delhommeau, B Fève, M Sabbah, L Garderet
    Leukemia, 2021;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  7. Longitudinal evaluation of Wnt inhibitors and comparison with others serum osteoimmunological biomarkers in osteolytic bone metastasis
    Authors: E Galliera, L Massaccesi, E de Benedet, E Longhi, D de Toma, MM Corsi Roma, G Banfi
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2020;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  8. Differences in Osteoimmunological Biomarkers Predictive of Psoriatic Arthritis among a Large Italian Cohort of Psoriatic Patients
    Authors: M Diani, S Perego, V Sansoni, L Bertino, M Gomarasca, M Faraldi, PDM Pigatto, G Damiani, G Banfi, G Altomare, G Lombardi
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019;20(22):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  9. Inflammation-Related Patterns in the Clinical Staging and Severity Assessment of Chronic Kidney Disease
    Authors: S Mihai, E Codrici, ID Popescu, AM Enciu, E Rusu, D Zilisteanu, LG Necula, G Anton, C Tanase
    Dis. Markers, 2019;2019(0):1814304.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  10. Increased Dkk-1 plasma levels may discriminate disease subtypes in myeloproliferative neoplasms
    Authors: C Mambet, L Necula, S Mihai, L Matei, C Bleotu, M Chivu-Econ, O Stanca, A Tatic, N Berbec, C Tanase, CC Diaconu
    J. Cell. Mol. Med., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  11. Correlation of blood bone turnover biomarkers and Wnt signaling antagonists with AS, DISH, OPLL, and OYL
    Authors: CC Niu, SS Lin, LJ Yuan, LH Chen, CY Yang, AN Chung, ML Lu, TT Tsai, PL Lai, WJ Chen
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord, 2017;18(1):61.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  12. MicroRNA-433-3p promotes osteoblast differentiation through targeting DKK1 expression
    Authors: X Tang, J Lin, G Wang, J Lu
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(6):e0179860.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Serum
  13. Effects of exercise training on circulating levels of Dickkpof-1 and secreted frizzled-related protein-1 in breast cancer survivors: A pilot single-blind randomized controlled trial
    Authors: TH Kim, JS Chang, KS Park, J Park, N Kim, JI Lee, ID Kong
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(2):e0171771.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  14. Interleukin-32 Gamma Stimulates Bone Formation by Increasing miR-29a in Osteoblastic Cells and Prevents the Development of Osteoporosis
    Authors: EJ Lee, SM Kim, B Choi, EY Kim, YH Chung, EJ Lee, B Yoo, CK Lee, S Hong, BJ Kim, JM Koh, SH Kim, YG Kim, EJ Chang
    Sci Rep, 2017;7(0):40240.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  15. Serum bone-turnover biomarkers are associated with the occurrence of peripheral and axial arthritis in psoriatic disease: a prospective cross-sectional comparative study
    Authors: DR Jadon, R Sengupta, A Nightingal, H Lu, J Dunphy, A Green, JT Elder, RP Nair, E Korendowyc, MA Lindsay, NJ McHugh
    Arthritis Res. Ther., 2017;19(1):210.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  16. Gene expression profiling identifies microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) as regulators of microenvironment-driven alterations in melanoma phenotype.
    Authors: Hartman M, Talar B, Noman M, Gajos-Michniewicz A, Chouaib S, Czyz M
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(4):e95157.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  17. Evidences of early senescence in multiple myeloma bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.
    Authors: Andre T, Meuleman N, Stamatopoulos B, De Bruyn C, Pieters K, Bron D, Lagneaux L
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(3):e59756.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  18. Paracrine and autocrine signals induce and maintain mesenchymal and stem cell states in the breast.
    Authors: Scheel C, Eaton E, Li S, Chaffer C, Reinhardt F, Kah K, Bell G, Guo W, Rubin J, Richardson A, Weinberg R
    Cell, 2011;145(6):926-40.
  19. Pharmaceutical inhibition of glycogen synthetase kinase-3beta reduces multiple myeloma-induced bone disease in a novel murine plasmacytoma xenograft model.
    Authors: Gunn WG, Krause U, Lee N, Gregory CA
    Blood, 2011;117(5):1641-51.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Serum
  20. Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) in plasma and synovial fluid is inversely correlated with radiographic severity of knee osteoarthritis patients.
    Authors: Honsawek S, Tanavalee A, Yuktanandana P, Ngarmukos S, Saetan N, Tantavisut S
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord, 2010;11(0):257.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  21. The roles of Wnt signaling modulators Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) and Dickkopf-2 (Dkk2) and cell maturation state in osteogenesis on microstructured titanium surfaces.
    Authors: Olivares-Navarrete R, Hyzy S, Wieland M, Boyan BD, Schwartz Z
    Biomaterials, 2010;31(8):2015-24.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates


  1. Assay Diluent RD1-14 contains visible precipitate. Is this acceptable to use?

    • A small amount of precipitate is expected and acceptable in Assay Diluent RD1-14. Variability has been observed between vials and diluent lots. It may not fully resolubilize but this will not impact assay performance. It is not recommended to filter the precipitate.

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