Human Integrin beta 2/CD18 Alexa Fluor® 647-conjugated Antibody Summary
Accession # AAA59490
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Preparation and Storage
Background: Integrin beta 2/CD18
Integrin alpha X beta 2, also called CD11c/CD18, p150/95 or complement receptor type 4 (CR4), is one of four beta 2 integrins. The non-covalent heterodimer of 150 kDa alpha X/CD11c and 95 kDa beta 2/CD18 integrin subunits is expressed on macrophages, dendritic cells and hairy cell leukemias, with lower amounts on other myeloid cells and activated B, NK and some cytotoxic T cells (1‑7). Like other integrins, alpha X beta 2 has multiple activation states (3). In the presence of divalent cations and "inside-out" signaling, alpha X beta 2 is fully active and extended. The alpha X vWFA or I-domain, which contains the adhesion sites, forms the N-terminal head region with the alpha X beta-propeller and the beta 2 vWFA domain (1, 8). In the inactive state, the heterodimer flexes in the center at the alpha X thigh and calf domains and beta 2 I-EGF domains, impeding access to adhesion sites (1). The 1088 aa human alpha X/CD11c ECD shares 70‑76% aa sequence identity with mouse, rat and canine alpha X while the 678 aa human beta 2/CD18 ECD shares 81‑83% aa sequence identity with mouse, rat, cow, dog, goat, sheep, and pig beta 2. Potential alpha X isoforms containing 719 and 725 aa (as compared to full-length 1163 aa alpha X) lack the vWFA domain and the N-terminus. Active alpha X beta 2 shares some adhesion partners with alpha M beta 2/CD11b/CD18, including complement opsonin fragment iC3b, ICAMs, vWF and fibrinogen, and is expressed on many of the same cells (4‑11). However, alpha M beta 2 activity is often constitutive, while alpha X beta 2 activity requires cell activation (4‑7). alpha X beta 2 also binds osteopontin, Thy-1, plasminogen, heparin, and proteins with abnormally exposed acidic residues (11‑16). The adhesion events are important for proliferation, degranulation, chemotactic migration, and phagocytosis of complement-opsonized particles (5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 16). Mutations of beta 2, especially in the vWFA domain, cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD-1) and susceptibility to bacterial infections (17).
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- Gang, J. et al. (2007) Mol. Cells 24:240.
- Vorup-Jensen, T. et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282:30869.
- Vorup-Jensen, T. et al. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1614.
- Kishimoto, T.K. et al. (1987) Cell 50:193.
Citation for Human Integrin beta 2/CD18 Alexa Fluor® 647-conjugated Antibody
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
1 Citation: Showing 1 - 1
Mitofusin-2 regulates leukocyte adhesion and beta2 integrin activation
Authors: W Liu, AY Hsu, Y Wang, T Lin, H Sun, JS Pachter, A Groisman, M Imperioli, FW Yungher, L Hu, P Wang, Q Deng, Z Fan
Journal of leukocyte biology, 2021;0(0):.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
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