Human Integrin beta 2/CD18 Alexa Fluor® 488-conjugated Antibody

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FAB1730G-100UG
R&D Systems Antibodies
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Human Integrin beta 2/CD18 Alexa Fluor® 488-conjugated Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Human
Specificity
Detects human Integrin beta 2/CD18 in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs, no cross-reactivity with recombinant human Integrin  beta 1 or recombinant mouse Integrin  alpha 5 is observed.
Source
Monoclonal Mouse IgG1 Clone # 212701
Immunogen
Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant human Integrin  beta 2/CD18
Gln23-Asn700
Accession # AAA59490
Formulation
Supplied 0.2 mg/mL in a saline solution containing BSA and Sodium Azide.
Label
Alexa Fluor 488 (Excitation= 488 nm, Emission= 515-545 nm)

Applications

Recommended Concentration
Sample
Flow Cytometry
0.25-1 µg/106 cells
Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

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Preparation and Storage

Shipping
The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.

Background: Integrin beta 2/CD18

Integrin alpha X beta 2, also called CD11c/CD18, p150/95 or complement receptor type 4 (CR4), is one of four beta 2 integrins. The non-covalent heterodimer of 150 kDa alpha X/CD11c and 95 kDa beta 2/CD18 integrin subunits is expressed on macrophages, dendritic cells and hairy cell leukemias, with lower amounts on other myeloid cells and activated B, NK and some cytotoxic T cells (1‑7). Like other integrins, alpha X beta 2 has multiple activation states (3). In the presence of divalent cations and "inside-out" signaling, alpha X beta 2 is fully active and extended. The alpha X vWFA or I-domain, which contains the adhesion sites, forms the N-terminal head region with the alpha X beta-propeller and the beta 2 vWFA domain (1, 8). In the inactive state, the heterodimer flexes in the center at the alpha X thigh and calf domains and beta 2 I-EGF domains, impeding access to adhesion sites (1). The 1088 aa human alpha X/CD11c ECD shares 70‑76% aa sequence identity with mouse, rat and canine alpha X while the 678 aa human beta 2/CD18 ECD shares 81‑83% aa sequence identity with mouse, rat, cow, dog, goat, sheep, and pig beta 2. Potential alpha X isoforms containing 719 and 725 aa (as compared to full-length 1163 aa alpha X) lack the vWFA domain and the N-terminus. Active alpha X beta 2 shares some adhesion partners with alpha M beta 2/CD11b/CD18, including complement opsonin fragment iC3b, ICAMs, vWF and fibrinogen, and is expressed on many of the same cells (4‑11). However, alpha M beta 2 activity is often constitutive, while alpha X beta 2 activity requires cell activation (4‑7). alpha X beta 2 also binds osteopontin, Thy-1, plasminogen, heparin, and proteins with abnormally exposed acidic residues (11‑16). The adhesion events are important for proliferation, degranulation, chemotactic migration, and phagocytosis of complement-opsonized particles (5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 16). Mutations of beta 2, especially in the vWFA domain, cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD-1) and susceptibility to bacterial infections (17).

References
  1. Corbi, A.L. et al. (1987) EMBO J. 6:4023.
  2. Kishimoto, T.K. et al. (1987) Cell 48:681.
  3. Hynes, R.O. (2002) Cell 110:673.
  4. Arnaout, M.A. (1990) Blood 75:1037.
  5. Postigo, A.A. et al. (1991) J. Exp. Med. 174:1313.
  6. Beyer, M. et al. (2005) Respir. Res. 6:70.
  7. Nicolaou, F. et al. (2003) Blood 101:4033.
  8. Vorup-Jensen, T. et al. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:1873.
  9. Bilsland, C.A.G. et al. (1994) J. Immunol. 152:4582.
  10. Pendu, R. et al. (2006) Blood 108:3746.
  11. Sadhu, C. et al. (2007) J. Leukoc. Biol. 81:1395.
  12. Schack, L. et al. (2009) J. Immunol. 182:6943.
  13. Choi, J. et al. (2005) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 331:557.
  14. Gang, J. et al. (2007) Mol. Cells 24:240.
  15. Vorup-Jensen, T. et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282:30869.
  16. Vorup-Jensen, T. et al. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1614.
  17. Kishimoto, T.K. et al. (1987) Cell 50:193.
Entrez Gene IDs
3689 (Human); 16414 (Mouse); 309684 (Rat); 101925124 (Cynomolgus Monkey)
Alternate Names
959 beta subunit precursor)10; CD18 antigen; CD18; CD18beta 2; cell surface adhesion glycoprotein (LFA-1; CR3; Integrin beta 2; integrin beta-2; integrin, beta 2 (antigen CD18 (p95), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1;macrophage antigen 1 (mac-1) beta subunit); integrin, beta 2 (complement component 3 receptor 3 and 4 subunit); ITGB2; LAD; LCAMB; leukocyte cell adhesion molecule CD18; leukocyte-associated antigens CD18/11A, CD18/11B, CD18/11C; LFA-1 beta; LFA-1; MAC-1 beta; MF17; MFI7; P150; p150,95 beta

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