Detection of Integrin beta 2/CD18 in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Flow Cytometry. Human peripheral blood Lymphocytes were stained with Mouse Anti-Human Integrin beta 2/CD18 PE‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB1730P, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # IC002P, open histogram). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.
Preparation and Storage
The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Protect from light. Do not freeze.
12 months from date of receipt, 2 to 8 °C as supplied.
Background: Integrin beta 2/CD18
Integrin alpha X beta 2, also called CD11c/CD18, p150/95 or complement receptor type 4 (CR4), is one of four beta 2 integrins. The non-covalent heterodimer of 150 kDa alpha X/CD11c and 95 kDa beta 2/CD18 integrin subunits is expressed on macrophages, dendritic cells and hairy cell leukemias, with lower amounts on other myeloid cells and activated B, NK and some cytotoxic T cells (1‑7). Like other integrins, alpha X beta 2 has multiple activation states (3). In the presence of divalent cations and "inside-out" signaling, alpha X beta 2 is fully active and extended. The alpha X vWFA or I-domain, which contains the adhesion sites, forms the N-terminal head region with the alpha X beta-propeller and the beta 2 vWFA domain (1, 8). In the inactive state, the heterodimer flexes in the center at the alpha X thigh and calf domains and beta 2 I-EGF domains, impeding access to adhesion sites (1). The 1088 aa human alpha X/CD11c ECD shares 70‑76% aa sequence identity with mouse, rat and canine alpha X while the 678 aa human beta 2/CD18 ECD shares 81‑83% aa sequence identity with mouse, rat, cow, dog, goat, sheep, and pig beta 2. Potential alpha X isoforms containing 719 and 725 aa (as compared to full-length 1163 aa alpha X) lack the vWFA domain and the N-terminus. Active alpha X beta 2 shares some adhesion partners with alpha M beta 2/CD11b/CD18, including complement opsonin fragment iC3b, ICAMs, vWF and fibrinogen, and is expressed on many of the same cells (4‑11). However, alpha M beta 2 activity is often constitutive, while alpha X beta 2 activity requires cell activation (4‑7). alpha X beta 2 also binds osteopontin, Thy-1, plasminogen, heparin, and proteins with abnormally exposed acidic residues (11‑16). The adhesion events are important for proliferation, degranulation, chemotactic migration, and phagocytosis of complement-opsonized particles (5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 16). Mutations of beta 2, especially in the vWFA domain, cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD-1) and susceptibility to bacterial infections (17).
Corbi, A.L. et al. (1987) EMBO J. 6:4023.
Kishimoto, T.K. et al. (1987) Cell 48:681.
Hynes, R.O. (2002) Cell 110:673.
Arnaout, M.A. (1990) Blood 75:1037.
Postigo, A.A. et al. (1991) J. Exp. Med. 174:1313.
Beyer, M. et al. (2005) Respir. Res. 6:70.
Nicolaou, F. et al. (2003) Blood 101:4033.
Vorup-Jensen, T. et al. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:1873.
Bilsland, C.A.G. et al. (1994) J. Immunol. 152:4582.
Pendu, R. et al. (2006) Blood 108:3746.
Sadhu, C. et al. (2007) J. Leukoc. Biol. 81:1395.
Schack, L. et al. (2009) J. Immunol. 182:6943.
Choi, J. et al. (2005) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 331:557.
Gang, J. et al. (2007) Mol. Cells 24:240.
Vorup-Jensen, T. et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282:30869.
Vorup-Jensen, T. et al. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1614.
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products.
The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Have you used Human Integrin beta 2/CD18 PE-conjugated Antibody?
Submit a review and receive a $25US/€18/£15/$25CAN amazon gift card if you include an image - $10US/€7/£6/$10CAN Amazon card for reviews without an image. Limited to verified customers in USA, Canada and Europe.