Human KIR2DL4/CD158d Alexa Fluor® 405-conjugated Antibody

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FAB2238V-100UG
R&D Systems Antibodies
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Human KIR2DL4/CD158d Alexa Fluor® 405-conjugated Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Human
Specificity
Stains human KIR2DL4/CD158d transfected BaF/3 cells. It does not recognize transfectants that express KIR2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL5, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS4, 3DL1, 3DL2, or 3DS1.
Source
Monoclonal Mouse IgG2a Clone # 181703
Immunogen
BaF3 mouse pro-B cell line transfected with human KIR2DL4/CD158d
Accession # Q99706
Formulation
Supplied 0.2 mg/mL in a saline solution containing BSA and Sodium Azide.
Label
Alexa Fluor 405 (Excitation= 405 nm, Emission= 421 nm)

Applications

Recommended Concentration
Sample
Flow Cytometry
0.25-1 µg/106 cells
NK92 human natural killer lymphoma cell line

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

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Preparation and Storage

Shipping
The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.

Background: KIR2DL4/CD158d

KIR2DL4 (also known as 2DL4, p49, CD158d, KIR103) is a type I transmembrane protein of the killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) family expressed on NK and subsets of gamma δT and memory/effector alpha beta T cells. KIR2DL4 is a unique KIR (1-3); alleles are not clonally restricted but are expressed codominantly (4) in all activated NK cells and constitutively on CD56hi NK cells. KIR members with two Ig-like domains (2D) usually express domains D1 and D2, but KIR2DL4 expresses D0 and D2. Other long-tailed (L) KIR have two cytoplasmic inhibitory signaling domains (ITIM), but KIR2DL4 has one ITIM and also exhibits characteristics of activating KIR (2). An arginine within the transmembrane sequence of KIR2DL4 interacts with the signaling molecule Fc epsilon RI-gamma, while in activating KIR, a transmembrane lysine interacts with DAP12 (1, 5). The KIR2DL4 gene is highly polymorphic. Seven splice variants missing one or more exons have been identified, but it is not clear whether these are expressed. Several of the nine alleles identified encode a frameshift creating a prematurely truncated protein. It is estimated that up to 25% of humans do not express KIR2DL4 capable of reaching the cell surface (1, 7, 10). Human KIR2DL4 is 65-83% amino acid identical to other primates. KIR receptors have no structural orthologs in non-primates, although mouse Ly49 proteins are functional orthologs. Cross-linking of KIR2DL4 induces NK cells to produce IFN-gamma (6, 7); stimulation with IL-2 upregulates cell surface expression on CD56dim cells and allows cytotoxicity (7). Although a role in immune privilege of the fetus has been suggested due to reported recognition of fetal trophoblast HLA-G by KIR2DL4 in the maternal decidua (11), subsequent data have not supported this recognition (1, 9).

References
  1. Lanier, L.L. (2005) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 23:225.
  2. Faure, M. and E.O. Long (2002) J. Immunol. 168:6208.
  3. Selvakumar, A. et al. (1996) Tissue Antigens 48:285.
  4. Chan, H-W. et al. (2003) J. Exp. Med. 197:245.
  5. Kikuchi-Maki, A. et al. (2005) J. Immunol. 174:3859.
  6. Rajagopalan, S. et al. (2001) J. Immunol. 167:1877.
  7. Kikuchi-Maki, A. et al. (2003) J. Immunol. 171:3415.
  8. Gedil, M.A. et al. (2005) Tissue Antigens 65:402.
  9. Witt, C.S. et al. (2002) Eur. J. Immunol. 32:18.
  10. Goodridge, J.P. et al. (2003) J. Immunol. 171:1768.
  11. Ponte, M. et al. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:5674.
Long Name
Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor, Two Domain Long Cytoplasmic Tail, 4
Entrez Gene IDs
3805 (Human)
Alternate Names
103AS; 15.212; CD158 antigen-like family member D; CD158d antigen; CD158d; CD158DKIR103ASKiller cell inhibitory receptor 103AS; G9P; killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL4; killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, two domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 4; killer Ig receptor; KIR103; KIR-103AS; KIR2DL4; MHC class I NK cell receptor KIR103AS; natural killer cell inhibitory receptor; NK cell receptor

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