Human KIR2DL4/CD158d Antibody

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Detection of KIR2DL4/CD158d in Human PBMCs by Flow Cytometry.
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Product Details
Citations (8)
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Human KIR2DL4/CD158d Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Stains human KIR2DL4/CD158d transfected BaF/3 cells. It does not recognize transfectants that express KIR2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL5, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS4, 3DL1, 3DL2, or 3DS1.
Monoclonal Mouse IgG2A Clone # 181703
Protein A or G purified from hybridoma culture supernatant
BaF3 mouse pro-B cell line transfected with human KIR2DL4/CD158d
Accession # Q99706
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied either lyophilized or as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.


Recommended Concentration
Flow Cytometry
0.25 µg/106 cells
Human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) NK cells were expanded with Cloudz Human NK Cell Expansion Kit (Catalog # CLD004) for 10 days
Agonist Activity
0.5-2 µg/mL
See below
Horowitz, A. et al. Sci. Transl. Med. (2013) 208ra145. Ready to be labeled using established conjugation methods. No BSA or other carrier proteins that could interfere with conjugation.

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Scientific Data

Flow Cytometry View Larger

Detection of KIR2DL4/CD158d in Human PBMCs by Flow Cytometry. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) NK cells were expanded with Cloudz Human NK Cell Expansion Kit (CLD004) for 10 days and stained with (A) Mouse Anti-Human KIR2DL4/CD158d Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB2238) or (B) Mouse IgG2A isotype control Antibody (MAB003) followed by Anti-Mouse IgG PE-conjugated Secondary Antibody (F0102B) and Mouse Anti-Human NCAM-1/CD56 APC-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (FAB2408A). Staining was performed using our Staining Membrane-associated Proteins protocol.

Agonist Activity Human KIR2DL4/CD158d Antibody Induces IFN-? Secretion antibody in NK-92 Cells. View Larger

Human KIR2DL4/CD158d Antibody Induces IFN-gamma Secretion in NK-92 Cells. Human KIR2DL4/CD158d Monoclonal Antibody induces IFN-gamma secretion in the NK-92 human natural killer lymphoma cell line in a dose-dependent manner, as measured using the Human IFN-gamma DuoSet ELISA Kit (Catalog # DY285B). The ED50 for this effect is typically 0.5-2 µg/mL.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

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Preparation and Storage

Reconstitute at 0.5 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
Reconstitution Buffer 1 (PBS)
Catalog #
Size / Price
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: KIR2DL4/CD158d

KIR2DL4 (also known as 2DL4, p49, CD158d, KIR103) is a type I transmembrane protein of the killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) family expressed on NK and subsets of gamma δT and memory/effector alpha beta T cells. KIR2DL4 is a unique KIR (1-3); alleles are not clonally restricted but are expressed codominantly (4) in all activated NK cells and constitutively on CD56hi NK cells. KIR members with two Ig-like domains (2D) usually express domains D1 and D2, but KIR2DL4 expresses D0 and D2. Other long-tailed (L) KIR have two cytoplasmic inhibitory signaling domains (ITIM), but KIR2DL4 has one ITIM and also exhibits characteristics of activating KIR (2). An arginine within the transmembrane sequence of KIR2DL4 interacts with the signaling molecule Fc epsilon RI-gamma, while in activating KIR, a transmembrane lysine interacts with DAP12 (1, 5). The KIR2DL4 gene is highly polymorphic. Seven splice variants missing one or more exons have been identified, but it is not clear whether these are expressed. Several of the nine alleles identified encode a frameshift creating a prematurely truncated protein. It is estimated that up to 25% of humans do not express KIR2DL4 capable of reaching the cell surface (1, 7, 10). Human KIR2DL4 is 65-83% amino acid identical to other primates. KIR receptors have no structural orthologs in non-primates, although mouse Ly49 proteins are functional orthologs. Cross-linking of KIR2DL4 induces NK cells to produce IFN-gamma (6, 7); stimulation with IL-2 upregulates cell surface expression on CD56dim cells and allows cytotoxicity (7). Although a role in immune privilege of the fetus has been suggested due to reported recognition of fetal trophoblast HLA-G by KIR2DL4 in the maternal decidua (11), subsequent data have not supported this recognition (1, 9).

  1. Lanier, L.L. (2005) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 23:225.
  2. Faure, M. and E.O. Long (2002) J. Immunol. 168:6208.
  3. Selvakumar, A. et al. (1996) Tissue Antigens 48:285.
  4. Chan, H-W. et al. (2003) J. Exp. Med. 197:245.
  5. Kikuchi-Maki, A. et al. (2005) J. Immunol. 174:3859.
  6. Rajagopalan, S. et al. (2001) J. Immunol. 167:1877.
  7. Kikuchi-Maki, A. et al. (2003) J. Immunol. 171:3415.
  8. Gedil, M.A. et al. (2005) Tissue Antigens 65:402.
  9. Witt, C.S. et al. (2002) Eur. J. Immunol. 32:18.
  10. Goodridge, J.P. et al. (2003) J. Immunol. 171:1768.
  11. Ponte, M. et al. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:5674.
Long Name
Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor, Two Domain Long Cytoplasmic Tail, 4
Entrez Gene IDs
3805 (Human)
Alternate Names
103AS; 15.212; CD158 antigen-like family member D; CD158d antigen; CD158d; CD158DKIR103ASKiller cell inhibitory receptor 103AS; G9P; killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL4; killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, two domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 4; killer Ig receptor; KIR103; KIR-103AS; KIR2DL4; MHC class I NK cell receptor KIR103AS; natural killer cell inhibitory receptor; NK cell receptor

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Citations for Human KIR2DL4/CD158d Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

8 Citations: Showing 1 - 8
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  1. HLA-C and KIR permutations influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk
    Authors: T Mkorombind, TK Tran-Nguye, K Yuan, Y Zhang, J Xue, GJ Criner, YI Kim, JM Pilewski, A Gaggar, MH Cho, FC Sciurba, SR Duncan
    JCI Insight, 2021-10-08;6(19):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Functional Assay
  2. Possible involvement of human mast cells in the establishment of pregnancy via KIR2DL4
    Authors: C Ueshima, TR Kataoka, M Hirata, A Sugimoto, Y Iemura, S Minamiguch, T Nomura, H Haga
    Am. J. Pathol., 2018-03-22;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Functional Assay
  3. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL4 is expressed in and suppresses the cell growth of Langerhans cell histiocytosis
    Authors: Y Takei, C Ueshima, TR Kataoka, M Hirata, A Sugimoto, M Rokutan-Ku, K Moriyoshi, K Ono, I Murakami, S Iwamoto, H Haga
    Oncotarget, 2017-06-06;8(23):36964-36972.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Functional Assay
  4. Activating KIR2DS4 Is Expressed by Uterine NK Cells and Contributes to Successful Pregnancy
    Authors: Ashley Moffett
    J. Immunol., 2016-11-04;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  5. Killer Ig-like receptor 2DL4 does not mediate NK cell IFN-gamma responses to soluble HLA-G preparations.
    Authors: Le Page M, Goodridge J, John E, Christiansen F, Witt C
    J Immunol, 2013-12-11;192(2):732-40.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry, Functional Assay
  6. TNFR-associated factor 6 and TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 control signals for a senescence response by an endosomal NK cell receptor.
    Authors: Rajagopalan S, Lee E, DuPrie M, Long E
    J Immunol, 2013-12-11;192(2):714-21.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: Immunoprecipitation
  7. Human cytomegalovirus infection elicits new decidual natural killer cell effector functions.
    Authors: Siewiera J, El Costa H, Tabiasco J, Berrebi A, Cartron G, Le Bouteiller P, Jabrane-Ferrat N
    PLoS Pathog, 2013-04-04;9(4):e1003257.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  8. Direct binding of human NK cell natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp44 to the surfaces of mycobacteria and other bacteria.
    Authors: Esin S, Batoni G, Counoupas C, Stringaro A, Brancatisano FL, Colone M, Maisetta G, Florio W, Arancia G, Campa M
    Infect. Immun., 2008-01-22;76(4):1719-27.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC


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