Human KIR2DL4/CD158d PE-conjugated Antibody

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
FAB2238P-025
FAB2238P-100
Detection of KIR2DL4/CD158d in Human PBMCs by Flow Cytometry.
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Citations (7)
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Human KIR2DL4/CD158d PE-conjugated Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Human
Specificity
Stains human KIR2DL4 transfected BaF/3 cells. It does not recognize transfectants that express KIR2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL5, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS4, 3DL1, 3DL2, or 3DS1.
Source
Monoclonal Mouse IgG2A Clone # 181703
Purification
Protein A or G purified from hybridoma culture supernatant
Immunogen
BaF3 mouse pro-B cell line transfected with human KIR2DL4
Accession # Q99706
Formulation
Supplied in a saline solution containing BSA and Sodium Azide.
Label
Phycoerythrin (Excitation= 488 nm, Emission= 565-605 nm)

Applications

Recommended Concentration
Sample
Flow Cytometry
10 µL/106 cells
See below

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Data Examples

Flow Cytometry View Larger

Detection of KIR2DL4/CD158d in Human PBMCs by Flow Cytometry. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) NK cells were expanded with Cloudz Human NK Cell Expansion Kit (CLD004) for 10 days and stained with (A) Mouse Anti-Human KIR2DL4/CD158d PE-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB2238P) or (B) Mouse IgG2A isotype control Antibody (IC003P) and Mouse Anti-Human NCAM-1/CD56 APC-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (FAB2408A). Staining was performed using our Staining Membrane-associated Proteins protocol.

Flow Cytometry Detection of KIR2DL4/CD158d antibody in Human PBMCs antibody by Flow Cytometry. View Larger

Detection of KIR2DL4/CD158d in Human PBMCs by Flow Cytometry. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with 150 ng/mL Recombinant Human IL-2 (Catalog # 202-IL) for 6 days were stained with Mouse Anti-Human KIR2DL4/CD158d PE-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB2238P) and Mouse Anti-Human NCAM-1/CD56 APC-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB2408A). Quadrant markers were set based on control antibody staining (Catalog # IC003P). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.

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Preparation and Storage

Shipping
The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Protect from light. Do not freeze.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, 2 to 8 °C as supplied.

Background: KIR2DL4/CD158d

KIR2DL4 (also known as 2DL4, p49, CD158d, KIR103) is a type I transmembrane protein of the killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) family expressed on NK and subsets of gamma δT and memory/effector alpha beta T cells. KIR2DL4 is a unique KIR (1-3); alleles are not clonally restricted but are expressed codominantly (4) in all activated NK cells and constitutively on CD56hi NK cells. KIR members with two Ig-like domains (2D) usually express domains D1 and D2, but KIR2DL4 expresses D0 and D2. Other long-tailed (L) KIR have two cytoplasmic inhibitory signaling domains (ITIM), but KIR2DL4 has one ITIM and also exhibits characteristics of activating KIR (2). An arginine within the transmembrane sequence of KIR2DL4 interacts with the signaling molecule Fc epsilon RI-gamma, while in activating KIR, a transmembrane lysine interacts with DAP12 (1, 5). The KIR2DL4 gene is highly polymorphic. Seven splice variants missing one or more exons have been identified, but it is not clear whether these are expressed. Several of the nine alleles identified encode a frameshift creating a prematurely truncated protein. It is estimated that up to 25% of humans do not express KIR2DL4 capable of reaching the cell surface (1, 7, 10). Human KIR2DL4 is 65-83% amino acid identical to other primates. KIR receptors have no structural orthologs in non-primates, although mouse Ly49 proteins are functional orthologs. Cross-linking of KIR2DL4 induces NK cells to produce IFN-gamma (6, 7); stimulation with IL-2 upregulates cell surface expression on CD56dim cells and allows cytotoxicity (7). Although a role in immune privilege of the fetus has been suggested due to reported recognition of fetal trophoblast HLA-G by KIR2DL4 in the maternal decidua (11), subsequent data have not supported this recognition (1, 9).

References
  1. Lanier, L.L. (2005) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 23:225.
  2. Faure, M. and E.O. Long (2002) J. Immunol. 168:6208.
  3. Selvakumar, A. et al. (1996) Tissue Antigens 48:285.
  4. Chan, H-W. et al. (2003) J. Exp. Med. 197:245.
  5. Kikuchi-Maki, A. et al. (2005) J. Immunol. 174:3859.
  6. Rajagopalan, S. et al. (2001) J. Immunol. 167:1877.
  7. Kikuchi-Maki, A. et al. (2003) J. Immunol. 171:3415.
  8. Gedil, M.A. et al. (2005) Tissue Antigens 65:402.
  9. Witt, C.S. et al. (2002) Eur. J. Immunol. 32:18.
  10. Goodridge, J.P. et al. (2003) J. Immunol. 171:1768.
  11. Ponte, M. et al. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:5674.
Long Name
Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor, Two Domain Long Cytoplasmic Tail, 4
Entrez Gene IDs
3805 (Human)
Alternate Names
103AS; 15.212; CD158 antigen-like family member D; CD158d antigen; CD158d; CD158DKIR103ASKiller cell inhibitory receptor 103AS; G9P; killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL4; killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, two domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 4; killer Ig receptor; KIR103; KIR-103AS; KIR2DL4; MHC class I NK cell receptor KIR103AS; natural killer cell inhibitory receptor; NK cell receptor

Product Datasheets

Citations for Human KIR2DL4/CD158d PE-conjugated Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

7 Citations: Showing 1 - 7
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  1. Antibody-Dependent NK Cell Activation Differentially Targets EBV-Infected Cells in Lytic Cycle and Bystander B Lymphocytes Bound to Viral Antigen-Containing Particles
    Authors: M López-Mont, E Alari-Pahi, J Sintes, JE Martínez-R, A Muntasell, M López-Bote
    J. Immunol., 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  2. Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Inhibits the Anti-Tumor Effect of Natural Killer Cells via Immunoglobulin-Like Transcript 2 in Gastric Cancer
    Authors: R Wan, ZW Wang, H Li, XD Peng, GY Liu, JM Ou, AQ Cheng
    Cell. Physiol. Biochem., 2017;44(5):1828-1841.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  3. Protein Phosphatase 5 Contributes to the Overexpression of Epigenetically Regulated T-Lymphocyte Genes in Patients with Lupus
    Authors: D Patel, G Gorelik, B Richardson
    Lupus (Los Angel), 2016;1(3):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  4. HLA-G inhibition of NK-cell cytolytic function is uncoupled from tumor cell lipid raft reorganization.
    Authors: Baudhuin J, Lesport E, Sousa S, Migraine J, Vigneron J, LeMaoult J, Carosella ED, Mooney N, Favier B
    Eur. J. Immunol., 2012;42(3):700-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  5. Decreased DNA methyltransferase levels contribute to abnormal gene expression in "senescent" CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells.
    Authors: Liu Y, Chen Y, Richardson B
    Clin. Immunol., 2009;132(2):257-65.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  6. Functional impairment in circulating and intrahepatic NK cells and relative mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
    Authors: Cai L, Zhang Z, Zhou L, Wang H, Fu J, Zhang S, Shi M, Zhang H, Yang Y, Wu H, Tien P, Wang FS
    Clin. Immunol., 2008;129(3):428-37.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry
  7. Epigenetic mechanisms of age-dependent KIR2DL4 expression in T cells.
    Authors: Li G, Weyand CM, Goronzy JJ
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2008;84(3):824-34.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry

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