Human KIR2DL4/CD158d PE-conjugated Antibody

(4 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
  • Specificity
    Stains human KIR2DL4 transfected BaF/3 cells. It does not recognize transfectants that express KIR2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL5, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS4, 3DL1, 3DL2, or 3DS1.
  • Source
    Monoclonal Mouse IgG2A Clone # 181703
  • Purification
    Protein A or G purified from hybridoma culture supernatant
  • Immunogen
    BaF3 mouse pro-B cell line transfected with human KIR2DL4
    Accession # Q99706
  • Formulation
    Supplied in a saline solution containing BSA and Sodium Azide.
  • Label
  • Flow Cytometry
    10 µL/106 cells
    See below
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Detection of KIR2DL4/CD158d in Human PBMCs by Flow Cytometry. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with 150 ng/mL Recombinant Human IL‑2 (Catalog # 202-IL) for 6 days were stained with Mouse Anti-Human KIR2DL4/CD158d PE‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB2238P) and Mouse Anti-Human NCAM‑1/CD56 APC‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB2408A). Quadrant markers were set based on control antibody staining (Catalog # IC003P). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.
Preparation and Storage
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
  • Stability & Storage
    Protect from light. Do not freeze.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, 2 to 8 °C as supplied.
Background: KIR2DL4/CD158d

KIR2DL4 (also known as 2DL4, p49, CD158d, KIR103) is a type I transmembrane protein of the killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) family expressed on NK and subsets of gamma δT and memory/effector alpha beta T cells. KIR2DL4 is a unique KIR (1-3); alleles are not clonally restricted but are expressed codominantly (4) in all activated NK cells and constitutively on CD56hi NK cells. KIR members with two Ig-like domains (2D) usually express domains D1 and D2, but KIR2DL4 expresses D0 and D2. Other long-tailed (L) KIR have two cytoplasmic inhibitory signaling domains (ITIM), but KIR2DL4 has one ITIM and also exhibits characteristics of activating KIR (2). An arginine within the transmembrane sequence of KIR2DL4 interacts with the signaling molecule Fc epsilon RI-gamma, while in activating KIR, a transmembrane lysine interacts with DAP12 (1, 5). The KIR2DL4 gene is highly polymorphic. Seven splice variants missing one or more exons have been identified, but it is not clear whether these are expressed. Several of the nine alleles identified encode a frameshift creating a prematurely truncated protein. It is estimated that up to 25% of humans do not express KIR2DL4 capable of reaching the cell surface (1, 7, 10). Human KIR2DL4 is 65-83% amino acid identical to other primates. KIR receptors have no structural orthologs in non-primates, although mouse Ly49 proteins are functional orthologs. Cross-linking of KIR2DL4 induces NK cells to produce IFN-gamma (6, 7); stimulation with IL-2 upregulates cell surface expression on CD56dim cells and allows cytotoxicity (7). Although a role in immune privilege of the fetus has been suggested due to reported recognition of fetal trophoblast HLA-G by KIR2DL4 in the maternal decidua (11), subsequent data have not supported this recognition (1, 9).

  • References:
    1. Lanier, L.L. (2005) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 23:225.
    2. Faure, M. and E.O. Long (2002) J. Immunol. 168:6208.
    3. Selvakumar, A. et al. (1996) Tissue Antigens 48:285.
    4. Chan, H-W. et al. (2003) J. Exp. Med. 197:245.
    5. Kikuchi-Maki, A. et al. (2005) J. Immunol. 174:3859.
    6. Rajagopalan, S. et al. (2001) J. Immunol. 167:1877.
    7. Kikuchi-Maki, A. et al. (2003) J. Immunol. 171:3415.
    8. Gedil, M.A. et al. (2005) Tissue Antigens 65:402.
    9. Witt, C.S. et al. (2002) Eur. J. Immunol. 32:18.
    10. Goodridge, J.P. et al. (2003) J. Immunol. 171:1768.
    11. Ponte, M. et al. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:5674.
  • Long Name:
    Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor, Two Domain Long Cytoplasmic Tail, 4
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    3805 (Human)
  • Alternate Names:
    103AS; 15.212; CD158 antigen-like family member D; CD158d antigen; CD158d; CD158DKIR103ASKiller cell inhibitory receptor 103AS; G9P; killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL4; killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, two domains, long cytoplasmic tail, 4; killer Ig receptor; KIR103; KIR-103AS; MHC class I NK cell receptor KIR103AS; natural killer cell inhibitory receptor; NK cell receptor
Related Research Areas

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

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Sample Type
  1. HLA-G inhibition of NK-cell cytolytic function is uncoupled from tumor cell lipid raft reorganization.
    Authors: Baudhuin J, Lesport E, Sousa S, Migraine J, Vigneron J, LeMaoult J, Carosella ED, Mooney N, Favier B
    Eur. J. Immunol., 2012;42(3):700-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Flow
  2. Decreased DNA methyltransferase levels contribute to abnormal gene expression in "senescent" CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells.
    Authors: Liu Y, Chen Y, Richardson B
    Clin. Immunol., 2009;132(2):257-65.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Flow
  3. Epigenetic mechanisms of age-dependent KIR2DL4 expression in T cells.
    Authors: Li G, Weyand CM, Goronzy JJ
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2008;84(3):824-34.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Flow
  4. Functional impairment in circulating and intrahepatic NK cells and relative mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
    Authors: Cai L, Zhang Z, Zhou L, Wang H, Fu J, Zhang S, Shi M, Zhang H, Yang Y, Wu H, Tien P, Wang FS
    Clin. Immunol., 2008;129(3):428-37.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Flow
Isotype Controls
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Mouse IgG2A PE-conjugated Antibody

Ctrl IC003P 10  
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Staining Reagents
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Flow Cytometry Staining Buffer (1X)

Flow FC001 3
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Flow Cytometry Mouse Lyse Buffer (10X)

Flow FC003 1
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Flow Cytometry Human Lyse Buffer (10X)

Flow FC002 1
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