Human Osteoactivin/GPNMB Alexa Fluor® 488-conjugated Antibody Summary
Accession # NP_002501
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Detection of Osteoactivin/GPNMB in MG-63 HumanOsteosarcoma Cell Line by Flow Cytometry. MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line wasstained Mouse Anti-Human Osteoactivin/GPNMB Alexa Fluor® 488-conjugatedMonoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB25501G) or isotype control antibody(Catalog # IC0041G, open histogram). To facilitate intracellular staining, cellswere fixed with Flow Cytometry Fixation Buffer (Catalog # FC004)and permeabilized with Flow Cytometry Permeabilization/Wash Buffer I(Catalog # FC005). View our protocol for Staining Intracellular Molecules.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, 2 to 8 °C as supplied.
Osteoactivin (also GPNMB and DC-HIL) is a variably glycosylated 75-125 kDa member of the NMB/pMEL-17 family of molecules. It is found in multiple subcellular sites, but is most often associated with the endosomal/lysosomal compartment (1-3). Human Osteoactivin is a 560 amino acid (aa) type I transmembrane protein. Its precursor contains a 21 aa signal sequence, a 465 aa luminal/extracellular domain, a 21 aa transmembrane segment and a 53 aa cytoplasmic tail (4, 5). The luminal region contains an N-terminal heparin-binding motif (aa 23-26), multiple glycosylation sites, an RGD motif (aa 64-66) and an 88 aa PKD domain (aa 240-327). The intracellular tail has an ITAM (Y-x-x-I) and lysosomal targeting (L-L) motif (4, 5). The extracellular/luminal region shares 74% and 77% aa identity with the equivalent regions in mouse and canine, respectively. Multiple isoforms would appear to exist. There is one alternate splice form known that shows a 12 aa insert between aa 339-340 (6). An addtional 206 aa isoform shows a mutation at position # 181 that results in a 26 aa substitution for the C-terminal 380 amino acids (7, 8). This has the potential to be soluble and may represent a counterpart to a secreted isoform of rat Osteoactivin (9). Cells known to express Osteoactivin include macrophages/Kupffer cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, myeloid dendritic cells, retinal pigment epithelial cells and melanocytes, plus fetal chondrocytes and stratum basale keratinocytes (3-5, 10-12). In mice, Osteoactivin is reported to bind to heparan sulfate-proteoglycan, possibly on the surface of endothelial cells and may also interact with integrins (13). It also appears to act as an inflammatory suppressor gene, as its expression downregulates the macrophage inflammatory response by inhibiting IL-6 and IL-12 p40 production (3).
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- Kuan, C-T. et al. (2006) Clin. Cancer Res. 12:1970.
- Lennerz, V. et al. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:16013.
- Genbank Accession # AAH11595.
- Abdelmagid, S.M. et al. (2007) J. Cell. Physiol. 210:26.
- Haralanova-Ilieva, B. et al. (2005) J. Hepatol. 42:565.
- Ahn, J.H. et al. (2002) Blood 100:1742.
- Anderson, M.G. et al. (2002) Nat. Genet. 30:81.
- Shikano, S. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:8125.
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