|Detection of Podoplanin in A431 Human Cell Line by Flow Cytometry. A431 human epithelial carcinoma cell line was stained with Sheep Anti-Human Podoplanin APC‑conjugated Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB3670A, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # IC016A, open histogram). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.|
Podoplanin, also known as glycoprotein 36 (gp36), PA2.26 antigen, T1-alpha (T1A), and aggrus, is a 36 kDa type I transmembrane sialoglycoprotein and member of the Podoplanin family (1‑2). Podoplanin has three potential splice variants, the longest of which is represented by a 238 amino acid (aa) precursor (NP_006465). It contains an undefined signal sequence, a 22 aa transmembrane segment (aa 207‑228) and a short cytoplasmic tail (aa 229‑238). The ECD contains abundant Ser/Thr residues that could serve as potential O-linked glycosolation sites. The cytoplasmic tail contains putative sites for protein kinase C phosphorylation (2‑3). There are two potential alternate start sites at Met 77 (Swiss Prot #: Q86YL7) and Met 119 (EAW51692) that generate short forms. The 162 aa short form Podoplanin precursor shares 47% aa identity with mouse Podoplanin. Podoplanin is expressed on glomerular epithelial cells (podocytes), type I lung alveolar cells, lymphatic endothelial cells (4‑5), and numerous tumors, including colorectal tumors (3), squamous cell carcinomas (4, 6), testicular seminoma (7), and brain tumors (8‑10). One study shows high expression of Podoplanin mRNA in placenta, lung, skeletal muscle, and heart, and weaker levels in brain, kidney, and liver (1). Podoplanin is the ligand for C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) (2). Their association is dependent on sialic acid on O-glycans of Podoplanin (2). Through its association with CLEC-2, Podoplanin induces platelet aggregation and tumor metastasis (2). Podoplanin is also necessary for lymphatic vessel formation, normal lung cell proliferation and alveolus formation at birth (2).