|Detection of uPAR in Human Blood Granulocytes by Flow Cytometry. Human peripheral blood granulocytes were stained with Mouse Anti-Human uPAR PE‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB807P, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # IC002P, open histogram). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.|
The urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator (uPA) is one of two activators that converts the extracellular zymogen plasminogen to plasmin, a serine protease that is involved in a variety of normal and pathological processes that require cell migration and/or tissue destruction. uPA is synthesized and released from cells as a single-chain (sc) pro-enzyme with limited enzymatic activity and is converted to an active two-chain (tc) disulfide-linked active enzyme by plasmin and other specific proteinases. Both the scuPA and tcuPA bind with high-affinity to the cell surface via the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-linked receptor uPAR which serves to localize the uPA proteolytic activity. The enzymatic activity of scuPA has also been shown to be enhanced by binding to uPAR. Independent of their proteolytic activity, the uPA/uPAR interaction also initiates signal transduction responses resulting in activation of protein tyrosine kinases, gene expression, cell adhesion, and chemotaxis. uPAR can interact with integrins to suppress normal integrin adhesive function and promote adhesion to vitronectin through a high affinity vitronectin binding site on uPAR. uPAR cDNA encodes a 335 amino acid (aa) residue precursor protein with a 22 aa residue signal peptide, five potential N-linked glycosylation sites and a C‑terminal GPI-anchor site. An alternate spliced variant of uPAR encoding a secreted soluble form of uPAR also exists. Human and mouse uPAR share approximately 60% aa sequence identity and the receptor-ligand interaction is strictly species-specific.