Catalog Number: 1128
Biological Activity
GABAA receptor antagonist; potent CNS stimulant.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
  • Formula:
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 50 mM in ethanol with gentle warming and to 100 mM in DMSO
  • Storage:
    Store at RT
  • CAS No:
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Background References

  1. Kishimoto T et al.
    Leucocyte Typing VI. Garland Publishing Inc. London.
  2. Picrotoxin blockade of inverterbrate glutamate-gated chloride channels: subunit dependence and evidence for binding within the pore.
    Ette et al.
    J.Neurochem., 1999;72:318
  3. Enhancement by GABA of the association rate of picrotoxin and tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate to the rat cloned α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor subtype.
    Dillon et al.
    Br.J.Pharmacol., 1995;115:539
  4. On the mechanism of action of picrotoxin on GABA receptor channels in dissociated sympathetic neurones of the rat.
    Newland and Cull-Candy
    J.Physiol., 1992;447:191

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Picrotoxin include:

Showing Results 1 - 10 of 76

  1. Postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of somatostatin interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex of mice.
    Authors: Pan Et al.
  2. Activation of Muscarinic M1 Acetylcholine Receptors Induces Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus.
    Authors: Dennis Et al.
    J Neurosci
  3. Norepinephrine Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors.
    Authors: Ghosh Et al.
    Neural Plast
  4. GABAA receptor activity shapes the formation of inhibitory synapses between developing medium spiny neurons.
    Authors: Arama Et al.
    Physiol Rep
  5. Endogenous 17β-estradiol is required for activity-dependent long-term potentiation in the striatum: interaction with the dopaminergic system.
    Authors: Tozzi Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  6. Acid-sensing ion channel 1a drives AMPA receptor plasticity following ischaemia and acidosis in hippocampal CA1 neurons.
    Authors: Quintana Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  7. Hierarchical organization of long-range circuits in the olfactory cortices.
    Authors: Yang and Sun
    Cereb Cortex
  8. Localization of Presynaptic Plasticity Mechanisms Enables Functional Independence of Synaptic and Ectopic Transmission in the Cerebellum.
    Authors: Dobson and Bellamy
    Sci Rep
  9. Caffeine Modulates Vesicle Release and Recovery at Cerebellar Parallel Fibre Terminals, Independently of Calcium and Cyclic AMP Signalling.
    Authors: Dobson Et al.
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther
  10. Regulation of action potential waveforms by axonal GABAA receptors in cortical pyramidal neurons.
    Authors: Xia Et al.
    PLoS One
  11. SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One
  12. A local glutamate-glutamine cycle sustains synaptic excitatory transmitter release.
    Authors: Tani Et al.
  13. Neuritin can normalize neural deficits of Alzheimer's disease.
    Authors: An Et al.
    Cell Death Dis
  14. The MK2/3 cascade regulates AMPAR trafficking and cognitive flexibility.
    Authors: Eales Et al.
    Nat Commun
  15. Generation of induced neuronal cells by the single reprogramming factor ASCL1.
    Authors: Chanda Et al.
    PLoS One
  16. Gap junction networks can generate both ripple-like and fast ripple-like oscillations.
    Authors: Simon Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci
  17. Activity-dependent regulation of dendritic complexity by semaphorin 3A through Farp1.
    Authors: Cheadle and Biederer
    J Biol Chem
  18. Genetic elimination of GABAergic neurotransmission reveals two distinct pacemakers for spontaneous waves of activity in the developing mouse cortex.
    Authors: Easton Et al.
    J Neurosci
  19. TrkB interacts with ErbB4 and regulates NRG1-induced NR2B phosphorylation in cortical neurons before synaptogenesis.
    Authors: Pandya and Pillai
    J Neurosci
  20. Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit.
    Authors: Neuser Et al.
    PLoS One
  21. Low voltage activation of KCa1.1 current by Cav3-KCa1.1 complexes.
    Authors: Rehak Et al.
    PLoS One
  22. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY379268 regulates AMPA receptor trafficking in prefrontal cortical neurons.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One
  23. Medial prefrontal cortex inversely regulates toluene-induced changes in markers of synaptic plasticity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons.
    Authors: Beckley Et al.
    J Neurosci
  24. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure reduces plasticity and alters NMDA receptor subunit composition in the dentate gyrus.
    Authors: Brady Et al.
    Cell Metab
  25. SHANK3 gene mutations associated with autism facilitate ligand binding to the Shank3 ankyrin repeat region.
    Authors: Mameza Et al.
    J Neurosci
  26. Activity-regulated somatostatin expression reduces dendritic spine density and lowers excitatory synaptic transmission via postsynaptic somatostatin receptor 4.
    Authors: Hou and Yu
    J Biol Chem
  27. Neurons generated by direct conversion of fibroblasts reproduce synaptic phenotype caused by autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutation.
    Authors: Chanda Et al.
    Cell Commun Signal
  28. GABA maintains the proliferation of progenitors in the developing chick ciliary marginal zone and non-pigmented ciliary epithelium.
    Authors: Ring Et al.
    PLoS One
  29. Mind bomb-1 is an essential modulator of long-term memory and synaptic plasticity via the Notch signaling pathway.
    Authors: Yoon Et al.
    Mol Brain
  30. Simulated GABA synaptic input and L-type calcium channels form functional microdomains in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.
    Authors: Hemond Et al.
    J Neurosci
  31. Activity-dependent regulation of inhibition via GAD67.
    Authors: Lau and Murthy
    J Physiol
  32. Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections.
    Authors: Hnasko Et al.
    J Neurosci
  33. Neuregulin directly decreases voltage-gated sodium current in hippocampal ErbB4-expressing interneurons.
    Authors: Janssen Et al.
    J Neurosci
  34. Developmental regulation of CB1-mediated spike-time dependent depression at immature mossy fiber-CA3 synapses.
    Authors: Caiati Et al.
    Sci Rep
  35. NMDA receptors and BAX are essential for Aβ impairment of LTP.
    Authors: Olsen and Sheng
    Sci Rep
  36. Kv4.2 knockout mice have hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits.
    Authors: Lugo Et al.
    Learn Mem
  37. Independent regulation of basal neurotransmitter release efficacy by variable Ca2+ influx and bouton size at small central synapses.
    Authors: Ermolyuk Et al.
    PLoS Biol
  38. GluN2B subunit deletion reveals key role in acute and chronic ethanol sensitivity of glutamate synapses in bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.
    Authors: Wills Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  39. A critical role for GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in cortical development and function.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
  40. Cholinergic interneurons mediate fast VGluT3-dependent glutamatergic transmission in the striatum.
    Authors: Higley Et al.
    PLoS One
  41. Molecular determinants controlling NMDA receptor synaptic incorporation.
    Authors: Storey Et al.
    J Neurosci
  42. Delayed postnatal loss of P/Q-type calcium channels recapitulates the absence epilepsy, dyskinesia, and ataxia phenotypes of genomic Cacna1a mutations.
    Authors: Mark Et al.
    J Neurosci
  43. Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice.
    Authors: Parker Et al.
    J Neurosci
  44. A diversity of synaptic filters are created by temporal summation of excitation and inhibition.
    Authors: George Et al.
    J Neurosci
  45. Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing.
    Authors: Lazarevic Et al.
    Mol Pain
  46. An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus.
    Authors: Etherton Et al.
    EMBO J
  47. Distinct functions of kainate receptors in the brain are determined by the auxiliary subunit Neto1.
    Authors: Straub Et al.
    Nat Neurosci
  48. A new mode of corticothalamic transmission revealed in the Gria4(-/-) model of absence epilepsy.
    Authors: Paz Et al.
    J Biol Chem
  49. Leptin does not directly affect CNS serotonin neurons to influence appetite.
    Authors: Lam Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports
  50. Facilitation of long-term potentiation by muscarinic M(1) receptors is mediated by inhibition of SK channels.
    Authors: Buchanan Et al.
  51. Neurexin-neuroligin cell adhesion complexes contribute to synaptotropic dendritogenesis via growth stabilization mechanisms in vivo.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  52. Control of cerebellar long-term potentiation by P-Rex-family guanine-nucleotide exchange factors and phosphoinositide 3-kinase.
    Authors: Jackson Et al.
    PLoS One
  53. Dopamine-dependent tuning of striatal inhibitory synaptogenesis.
    Authors: Goffin Et al.
    J Neurosci
  54. A glycine receptor is involved in the organization of swimming movements in an invertebrate chordate.
    Authors: Nishino Et al.
    BMC Neurosci
  55. Inhibitory role for GABA in autoimmune inflammation.
    Authors: Bhat Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  56. Constitutively active H-ras accelerates multiple forms of plasticity in developing visual cortex.
    Authors: Kaneko Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  57. A dynamic role for GABA receptors on the firing pattern of midbrain dopaminergic neurons.
    Authors: Lobb Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  58. Novel repression of Kcc2 transcription by REST-RE-1 controls developmental switch in neuronal chloride.
    Authors: Yeo Et al.
    Nat Neurosci
  59. Propofol inhibits pressure-stimulated macrophage phagocytosis via the GABAA receptor and dysregulation of p130cas phosphorylation.
    Authors: Shiratsuchi Et al.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol
  60. Nerve Terminal GABAA Receptors Activate Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Signaling to Inhibit Voltage-gated Ca2+ Influx and Glutamate Release.
    Authors: Long Et al.
    J Neurosci
  61. PICK1-mediated glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) trafficking contributes to cell death in oxygen/glucose-deprived hippocampal neurons.
    Authors: Dixon Et al.
    J Neurosci
  62. Experience-dependent intrinsic plasticity in interneurons of barrel cortex layer IV.
    Authors: Sun
    J Neurosci
  63. A presynaptic gain control mechanism fine-tunes olfactory behavior.
    Authors: Root Et al.
  64. Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala.
    Authors: Jüngling Et al.
  65. Histone H2AX-dependent GABA(A) receptor regulation of stem cell proliferation.
    Authors: Andäng Et al.
  66. Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition.
    Authors: Costa Et al.
    J Neurosci
  67. NMDA receptor blockade with memantine attenuates white matter injury in a rat model of periventricular leukomalacia.
    Authors: Manning Et al.
    J Biol Chem
  68. Activity-induced synaptic capture and exocytosis of the neuronal serine protease neurotrypsin.
    Authors: Frischknecht Et al.
    J Neurosci
  69. Sequential changes in AMPA receptor targeting in the developing neocortical excitatory circuit.
    Authors: Brill and Huguenard
    PLoS One
  70. Dopamine enhances fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the extended amygdala by a CRF-R1-dependent process.
    Authors: Kash Et al.
    J Neurosci
  71. Specific targeting of pro-death NMDA receptor signals with differing reliance on the NR2B PDZ ligand.
    Authors: Soriano Et al.
    J Neurosci
  72. Barrel map development relies on protein kinase A regulatory subunit II beta-mediated cAMP signaling.
    Authors: Inan Et al.
    J Neurosci
  73. Insufficient sleep reversibly alters bidirectional synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function.
    Authors: Kopp Et al.
    J Neurosci
  74. Propofol suppresses synaptic responsiveness of somatosensory relay neurons to excitatory input by potentiating GABA(A) receptor chloride channels.
    Authors: Ying and Goldstein
    Front Cell Neurosci
  75. Pattern-dependent, simultaneous plasticity differentially transforms the input-output relationship of a feedforward circuit.
    Authors: Smith and Otis
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  76. Feeding induced by cannabinoids is mediated independently of the melanocortin system.
    Authors: Sinnayah Et al.
    J Neurosci
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