Picrotoxin

  ( 92 citations )    
Product Datasheet
Catalog Number:1128
Chemical Name:
Product Details
Citations (92)
Supplemental Products
Reviews
Biological Activity
GABAA receptor antagonist; potent CNS stimulant.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
    602.59
  • Formula:
    C30H34O13
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 50 mM in ethanol with gentle warming and to 100 mM in DMSO
  • Storage:
    Store at RT
  • CAS No:
    124-87-8
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
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Citations:

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Picrotoxin include:

92 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Feeding induced by cannabinoids is mediated independently of the melanocortin system.
    Authors: Sinnayah Et al.
    J Neurosci  ;3:e2202
  2. Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated neuroprotection in a G2019S Lrrk2 genetic model of Parkinson�s disease.
    Authors: Tozzi
    Cell Death Dis  2018;9(2):204
  3. Postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of somatostatin interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex of mice.
    Authors: Pan Et al.
    Neuron  2016;6:28137
  4. Direct modulation of GFAP-expressing glia in the arcuate nucleus bi-directionally regulates feeding.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    Elife  2016;5
  5. The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D1 Receptor Neurons.
    Authors: Beckley Et al.
    J Neurosci  2016;36:701
  6. Activation of Muscarinic M1 Acetylcholine Receptors Induces Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus.
    Authors: Dennis Et al.
    J Neurosci  2016;26:414
  7. Norepinephrine Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors.
    Authors: Ghosh Et al.
    Neural Plast  2015;9:450
  8. GABAA receptor activity shapes the formation of inhibitory synapses between developing medium spiny neurons.
    Authors: Arama Et al.
    Physiol Rep  2015;9:290
  9. Endogenous 17β-estradiol is required for activity-dependent long-term potentiation in the striatum: interaction with the dopaminergic system.
    Authors: Tozzi Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;9:192
  10. Acid-sensing ion channel 1a drives AMPA receptor plasticity following ischaemia and acidosis in hippocampal CA1 neurons.
    Authors: Quintana Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;593:4373
  11. Hierarchical organization of long-range circuits in the olfactory cortices.
    Authors: Yang and Sun
    Cereb Cortex  2015;3
  12. Localization of Presynaptic Plasticity Mechanisms Enables Functional Independence of Synaptic and Ectopic Transmission in the Cerebellum.
    Authors: Dobson and Bellamy
    Sci Rep  2015;2015:602356
  13. Caffeine Modulates Vesicle Release and Recovery at Cerebellar Parallel Fibre Terminals, Independently of Calcium and Cyclic AMP Signalling.
    Authors: Dobson Et al.
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther  2015;10:e0125974
  14. Regulation of action potential waveforms by axonal GABAA receptors in cortical pyramidal neurons.
    Authors: Xia Et al.
    PLoS One  2014;9:e100968
  15. SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One  2014;8:e83941
  16. Excitatory drive onto dopaminergic neurons in the rostral linear nucleus is enhanced by norepinephrine in an α1 adrenergic receptor-dependent manner.
    Authors: Williams Et al.
    Neuropharmacology  2014;86:116
  17. A local glutamate-glutamine cycle sustains synaptic excitatory transmitter release.
    Authors: Tani Et al.
    Neuron  2014;81:888
  18. Neuritin can normalize neural deficits of Alzheimer's disease.
    Authors: An Et al.
    Cell Death Dis  2014;5:e1523
  19. The MK2/3 cascade regulates AMPAR trafficking and cognitive flexibility.
    Authors: Eales Et al.
    Nat Commun  2014;5:4701
  20. Generation of induced neuronal cells by the single reprogramming factor ASCL1.
    Authors: Chanda Et al.
    PLoS One  2014;3:282
  21. Neurosteroid Agonist at GABAA receptor induces persistent neuroplasticity in VTA dopamine neurons.
    Authors: Vashchinkina Et al.
    Neuropsychopharmacology  2014;39:727
  22. Gap junction networks can generate both ripple-like and fast ripple-like oscillations.
    Authors: Simon Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci  2014;39:46
  23. Activity-dependent regulation of dendritic complexity by semaphorin 3A through Farp1.
    Authors: Cheadle and Biederer
    J Biol Chem  2014;34:7999
  24. Genetic elimination of GABAergic neurotransmission reveals two distinct pacemakers for spontaneous waves of activity in the developing mouse cortex.
    Authors: Easton Et al.
    J Neurosci  2014;34:3854
  25. TrkB interacts with ErbB4 and regulates NRG1-induced NR2B phosphorylation in cortical neurons before synaptogenesis.
    Authors: Pandya and Pillai
    J Neurosci  2014;12:47
  26. Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit.
    Authors: Neuser Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;8:e66497
  27. Low voltage activation of KCa1.1 current by Cav3-KCa1.1 complexes.
    Authors: Rehak Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;8:e61844
  28. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY379268 regulates AMPA receptor trafficking in prefrontal cortical neurons.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;8:e61787
  29. Medial prefrontal cortex inversely regulates toluene-induced changes in markers of synaptic plasticity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons.
    Authors: Beckley Et al.
    J Neurosci  2013;33:804
  30. PrPC controls via protein kinase A the direction of synaptic plasticity in the immature hippocampus.
    Authors: Caiati Et al.
    J Neurosci  2013;33:2973
  31. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure reduces plasticity and alters NMDA receptor subunit composition in the dentate gyrus.
    Authors: Brady Et al.
    Cell Metab  2013;33:1062
  32. SHANK3 gene mutations associated with autism facilitate ligand binding to the Shank3 ankyrin repeat region.
    Authors: Mameza Et al.
    J Neurosci  2013;288:26697
  33. Activity-regulated somatostatin expression reduces dendritic spine density and lowers excitatory synaptic transmission via postsynaptic somatostatin receptor 4.
    Authors: Hou and Yu
    J Biol Chem  2013;288:2501
  34. Neurons generated by direct conversion of fibroblasts reproduce synaptic phenotype caused by autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutation.
    Authors: Chanda Et al.
    Cell Commun Signal  2013;110:16622
  35. GABA maintains the proliferation of progenitors in the developing chick ciliary marginal zone and non-pigmented ciliary epithelium.
    Authors: Ring Et al.
    PLoS One  2012;7:e36874
  36. Mind bomb-1 is an essential modulator of long-term memory and synaptic plasticity via the Notch signaling pathway.
    Authors: Yoon Et al.
    Mol Brain  2012;5:40
  37. Simulated GABA synaptic input and L-type calcium channels form functional microdomains in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.
    Authors: Hemond Et al.
    J Neurosci  2012;32:8756
  38. Activity-dependent regulation of inhibition via GAD67.
    Authors: Lau and Murthy
    J Physiol  2012;32:8521
  39. Calcium-dependent but action potential-independent BCM-like metaplasticity in the hippocampus.
    Authors: Hulme Et al.
    J Neurosci  2012;32:6785
  40. Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections.
    Authors: Hnasko Et al.
    J Neurosci  2012;32:15076
  41. Neuregulin directly decreases voltage-gated sodium current in hippocampal ErbB4-expressing interneurons.
    Authors: Janssen Et al.
    J Neurosci  2012;32:13889
  42. Developmental regulation of CB1-mediated spike-time dependent depression at immature mossy fiber-CA3 synapses.
    Authors: Caiati Et al.
    Sci Rep  2012;2:285
  43. NMDA receptors and BAX are essential for Aβ impairment of LTP.
    Authors: Olsen and Sheng
    Sci Rep  2012;2:225
  44. Kv4.2 knockout mice have hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits.
    Authors: Lugo Et al.
    Learn Mem  2012;19:182
  45. Direct pharmacological monitoring of the developmental switch in NMDA receptor subunit composition using TCN 213, a GluN2A-selective, glycine-dependent antagonist.
    Authors: McKay Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol  2012;166:924
  46. Independent regulation of basal neurotransmitter release efficacy by variable Ca2+ influx and bouton size at small central synapses.
    Authors: Ermolyuk Et al.
    PLoS Biol  2012;10:e1001396
  47. GluN2B subunit deletion reveals key role in acute and chronic ethanol sensitivity of glutamate synapses in bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.
    Authors: Wills Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2012;109:E278
  48. A critical role for GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in cortical development and function.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    Neuron  2011;72:789
  49. Cholinergic interneurons mediate fast VGluT3-dependent glutamatergic transmission in the striatum.
    Authors: Higley Et al.
    PLoS One  2011;6:e19155
  50. β-Adrenergic receptors enhance excitatory transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis through a corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor-dependent and cocaine-regulated mechanism.
    Authors: Nobis Et al.
    Biol Psychiatry  2011;69:1083
  51. Pyramidal neurons are eurogenic hubs in the neurovascular coupling response to whisker stimulation.
    Authors: Lecrux Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:9836
  52. Molecular determinants controlling NMDA receptor synaptic incorporation.
    Authors: Storey Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:6311
  53. Delayed postnatal loss of P/Q-type calcium channels recapitulates the absence epilepsy, dyskinesia, and ataxia phenotypes of genomic Cacna1a mutations.
    Authors: Mark Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:4311
  54. Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice.
    Authors: Parker Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:17103
  55. A diversity of synaptic filters are created by temporal summation of excitation and inhibition.
    Authors: George Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:14721
  56. Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing.
    Authors: Lazarevic Et al.
    Mol Pain  2011;31:10189
  57. An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus.
    Authors: Etherton Et al.
    EMBO J  2011;30:2908
  58. Distinct functions of kainate receptors in the brain are determined by the auxiliary subunit Neto1.
    Authors: Straub Et al.
    Nat Neurosci  2011;14:866
  59. A new mode of corticothalamic transmission revealed in the Gria4(-/-) model of absence epilepsy.
    Authors: Paz Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2011;14:1167
  60. Leptin does not directly affect CNS serotonin neurons to influence appetite.
    Authors: Lam Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports  2011;13:584
  61. Endocannabinoids mediate synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic synapses on spiny neurons within a basal ganglia nucleus necessary for song learning.
    Authors: Thompson and Perkel
    J Neurophysiol  2011;105:1159
  62. Facilitation of long-term potentiation by muscarinic M(1) receptors is mediated by inhibition of SK channels.
    Authors: Buchanan Et al.
    Neuron  2010;68:948
  63. Neurexin-neuroligin cell adhesion complexes contribute to synaptotropic dendritogenesis via growth stabilization mechanisms in vivo.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2010;67:967
  64. Control of cerebellar long-term potentiation by P-Rex-family guanine-nucleotide exchange factors and phosphoinositide 3-kinase.
    Authors: Jackson Et al.
    PLoS One  2010;5:e11962
  65. Dopamine-dependent tuning of striatal inhibitory synaptogenesis.
    Authors: Goffin Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;30:2935
  66. A glycine receptor is involved in the organization of swimming movements in an invertebrate chordate.
    Authors: Nishino Et al.
    BMC Neurosci  2010;11:6
  67. Inhibitory role for GABA in autoimmune inflammation.
    Authors: Bhat Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2010;107:2580
  68. Constitutively active H-ras accelerates multiple forms of plasticity in developing visual cortex.
    Authors: Kaneko Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2010;107:19026
  69. A dynamic role for GABA receptors on the firing pattern of midbrain dopaminergic neurons.
    Authors: Lobb Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2010;104:403
  70. Novel repression of Kcc2 transcription by REST-RE-1 controls developmental switch in neuronal chloride.
    Authors: Yeo Et al.
    Nat Neurosci  2009;29:14652
  71. Propofol inhibits pressure-stimulated macrophage phagocytosis via the GABAA receptor and dysregulation of p130cas phosphorylation.
    Authors: Shiratsuchi Et al.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol  2009;296:C1400
  72. Nerve Terminal GABAA Receptors Activate Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Signaling to Inhibit Voltage-gated Ca2+ Influx and Glutamate Release.
    Authors: Long Et al.
    J Neurosci  2009;284:8726
  73. PICK1-mediated glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) trafficking contributes to cell death in oxygen/glucose-deprived hippocampal neurons.
    Authors: Dixon Et al.
    J Neurosci  2009;284:14230
  74. Experience-dependent intrinsic plasticity in interneurons of barrel cortex layer IV.
    Authors: Sun
    J Neurosci  2009;102:2955
  75. A presynaptic gain control mechanism fine-tunes olfactory behavior.
    Authors: Root Et al.
    Neuron  2008;59:311
  76. Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala.
    Authors: Jüngling Et al.
    Neuron  2008;59:298
  77. Low expression of Kv7/M channels facilitates intrinsic and network bursting in the developing rat hippocampus.
    Authors: Safiulina Et al.
    J Physiol  2008;586:5437
  78. Input-specific plasticity at excitatory synapses mediated by endocannabinoids in the dentate gyrus.
    Authors: Chiu and Castillo
    Neuropharmacology  2008;54:68
  79. Histone H2AX-dependent GABA(A) receptor regulation of stem cell proliferation.
    Authors: Andäng Et al.
    Nature  2008;451:460
  80. Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition.
    Authors: Costa Et al.
    J Neurosci  2008;28:8040
  81. NMDA receptor blockade with memantine attenuates white matter injury in a rat model of periventricular leukomalacia.
    Authors: Manning Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2008;28:6670
  82. Activity-induced synaptic capture and exocytosis of the neuronal serine protease neurotrypsin.
    Authors: Frischknecht Et al.
    J Neurosci  2008;28:1568
  83. Sequential changes in AMPA receptor targeting in the developing neocortical excitatory circuit.
    Authors: Brill and Huguenard
    PLoS One  2008;28:13918
  84. Dopamine enhances fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the extended amygdala by a CRF-R1-dependent process.
    Authors: Kash Et al.
    J Neurosci  2008;28:13856
  85. Specific targeting of pro-death NMDA receptor signals with differing reliance on the NR2B PDZ ligand.
    Authors: Soriano Et al.
    J Neurosci  2008;28:10696
  86. NMDA receptor activation potentiates inhibitory transmission through GABA receptor-associated protein-dependent exocytosis of GABA(A) receptors.
    Authors: Marsden Et al.
    J Neurosci  2007;27:14326
  87. Plasticity of intrinsic excitability during long-term depression is mediated through mGluR-dependent changes in I(h) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.
    Authors: Brager and Johnston
    J Neurosci  2007;27:13926
  88. Excitatory local circuits and their implications for olfactory processing in the fly antennal lobe.
    Authors: Shang Et al.
    Cell  2007;128:601
  89. Barrel map development relies on protein kinase A regulatory subunit II beta-mediated cAMP signaling.
    Authors: Inan Et al.
    J Neurosci  2006;26:4338
  90. Insufficient sleep reversibly alters bidirectional synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function.
    Authors: Kopp Et al.
    J Neurosci  2006;26:12456
  91. Propofol suppresses synaptic responsiveness of somatosensory relay neurons to excitatory input by potentiating GABA(A) receptor chloride channels.
    Authors: Ying and Goldstein
    Front Cell Neurosci  2005;1:2
  92. Pattern-dependent, simultaneous plasticity differentially transforms the input-output relationship of a feedforward circuit.
    Authors: Smith and Otis
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2005;102:14901
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