Biological ActivityPicrotoxin is a GABAA receptor antagonist; potent CNS stimulant.
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Enhancement by GABA of the association rate of picrotoxin and tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate to the rat cloned α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor subtype.
Dillon et al.
Picrotoxin blockade of inverterbrate glutamate-gated chloride channels: subunit dependence and evidence for binding within the pore.
Ette et al.
On the mechanism of action of picrotoxin on GABA receptor channels in dissociated sympathetic neurones of the rat.
Newland and Cull-Candy
Citations for Picrotoxin
The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Picrotoxin include:
125 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
Feeding induced by cannabinoids is mediated independently of the melanocortin system.
Authors: Sinnayah Et al.
J Neurosci ;3:e2202
Toxoplasma-Induced Hypermigration of Primary Cortical Microglia Implicates GABAergic Signaling.
Authors: Bhandage Et al.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019;9:73
TMEM16B regulates anxiety-related behavior and GABAergic neuronal signaling in the central lateral amygdala.
Authors: Li Et al.
KCC2-Mediated Cl- Extrusion Modulates Spontaneous Hippocampal Network Events in Perinatal Rats and Mice.
Authors: Spoljaric Et al.
Cell Rep 2019;26:1073
Linking NMDA Receptor Synaptic Retention to Synaptic Plasticity and Cognition.
Authors: Franchini Et al.
Altered Behaviors and Impaired Synaptic Function in a Novel Rat Model With a Complete Shank3 Deletion.
Authors: Song Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2019;13:111
Prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure induces working memory and social recognition deficits by disrupting inhibitory synaptic networks in male mice.
Authors: Yu Et al.
Mol Brain 2019;12:29
The CaMKII/NMDA receptor complex controls hippocampal synaptic transmission by kinase-dependent and independent mechanisms.
Nat Commun 2018;9:2069
The Temporal Dynamics of Arc Expression Regulate Cognitive Flexibility.
Authors: Wall Et al.
DA D2 receptor-mediated neuroprotection in a G2019S Lrrk2 genetic model of Parkinson�s disease.
Cell Death Dis 2018;9(2):204
Potassium channels contribute to activity-dependent regulation of dendritic inhibition.
Authors: Chang and Higley
Physiol Rep 2018;6:e13747
Genetic identification of leptin neural circuits in energy and glucose homeostases.
Authors: Xu Et al.
AKAP150 Palmitoylation Regulates Synaptic Incorporation of Ca2+-Permeable AMPA Receptors to Control LTP.
Authors: Purkey Et al.
Cell Rep 2018;25:974
The Developmental Shift of NMDA Receptor Composition Proceeds Independently of GluN2 Subunit-Specific GluN2 C-Terminal Sequences.
Authors: McKay Et al.
Cell Rep 2018;25:841
DA Cells Differentially Regulate Striatal Cholinergic Transmission across Regions through Corelease of DA and Glutamate.
Authors: Cai and Ford
Cell Rep 2018;25:3148
Functional Distinctions between Spine and Dendritic Synapses Made onto Parvalbumin-Positive Interneurons in Mouse Cortex.
Authors: Sancho and Bloodgood
Cell Rep 2018;24:2075
Selective modulation of tonically active GABAA receptor functional subgroups by G-proteins and protein kinase C.
Authors: O'Neill and Sylantyev
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2018;243:1046
Foxp2 loss of function increases striatal direct pathway inhibition via increased GABA release.
Authors: Rhijn Et al.
Brain Struct Funct 2018;223:4211
The locus coeruleus drives disinhibition in the midline thalamus via a dopaminergic mechanism.
Authors: Beas Et al.
Nat Neurosci 2018;21:963
All-optical synaptic electrophysiology probes mechanism of ketamine-induced disinhibition.
Authors: Fan Et al.
Nat Methods 2018;15:823
IGF1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity of Mitral Cells in Olfactory Memory during Social Learning.
Authors: Liu Et al.
Assembly of Excitatory Synapses in the Absence of Glutamatergic Neurotransmission.
Authors: Sando Et al.
A Critical Role of Presynaptic Cadherin/Catenin/p140Cap Complexes in Stabilizing Spines and Functional Synapses in the Neocortex.
Authors: Li Et al.
Post-Inhibitory Rebound Spikes in Rat Medial Entorhinal Layer II/III Principal Cells: In Vivo, In Vitro, and Computational Modeling Characterization.
Authors: Ferrante Et al.
Cereb Cortex 2017;27:2111
Ethanol Mediated Inhibition of Synaptic Vesicle Recycling at Amygdala Glutamate Synapses Is Dependent upon Munc13-2.
Authors: Gioia Et al.
Front Neurosci 2017;11:424
Postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of somatostatin interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex of mice.
Authors: Pan Et al.
Direct modulation of GFAP-expressing glia in the arcuate nucleus bi-directionally regulates feeding.
Authors: Chen Et al.
The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens DA D1 Receptor Neurons.
Authors: Beckley Et al.
J Neurosci 2016;36:701
Loss of MeCP2 in cholinergic neurons causes part of RTT-like phenotypes via α7 receptor in hippocampus.
Authors: Zhang Et al.
Cell Res 2016;26:728
Activation of Muscarinic M1 Acetylcholine Receptors Induces Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus.
Authors: Dennis Et al.
J Neurosci 2016;26:414
SHANK3 controls maturation of social reward circuits in the VTA.
Authors: Bariselli Et al.
Nat Neurosci 2016;19:926
A Cortical Circuit for Sexually Dimorphic Oxytocin-Dependent Anxiety Behaviors.
Authors: Li Et al.
Rapid Ngn2-induction of excitatory neurons from hiPSC-derived neural progenitor cells.
Authors: Ho Et al.
NE Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors.
Authors: Ghosh Et al.
Neural Plast 2015;9:450
GABAA receptor activity shapes the formation of inhibitory synapses between developing medium spiny neurons.
Authors: Arama Et al.
Physiol Rep 2015;9:290
Endogenous 17β-OE is required for activity-dependent long-term potentiation in the striatum: interaction with the DArgic system.
Authors: Tozzi Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2015;9:192
Acid-sensing ion channel 1a drives AMPA receptor plasticity following ischaemia and acidosis in hippocampal CA1 neurons.
Authors: Quintana Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2015;593:4373
Hierarchical organization of long-range circuits in the olfactory cortices.
Authors: Yang and Sun
Cereb Cortex 2015;3
Localization of Presynaptic Plasticity Mechanisms Enables Functional Independence of Synaptic and Ectopic Transmission in the Cerebellum.
Authors: Dobson and Bellamy
Sci Rep 2015;2015:602356
Synaptic and circuit mechanisms promoting broadband transmission of olfactory stimulus dynamics.
Authors: Nagel Et al.
Nat Neurosci 2015;18:56
Caffeine Modulates Vesicle Release and Recovery at Cerebellar Parallel Fibre Terminals, Independently of Calcium and Cyclic AMP Signalling.
Authors: Dobson Et al.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2015;10:e0125974
Regulation of action potential waveforms by axonal GABAA receptors in cortical pyramidal neurons.
Authors: Xia Et al.
PLoS One 2014;9:e100968
SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks.
Authors: Wang Et al.
PLoS One 2014;8:e83941
Excitatory drive onto DArgic neurons in the rostral linear nucleus is enhanced by NE in an α1 adrenergic receptor-dependent manner.
Authors: Williams Et al.
A local glutamate-glutamine cycle sustains synaptic excitatory transmitter release.
Authors: Tani Et al.
Neuritin can normalize neural deficits of Alzheimer's disease.
Authors: An Et al.
Cell Death Dis 2014;5:e1523
The MK2/3 cascade regulates AMPAR trafficking and cognitive flexibility.
Authors: Eales Et al.
Nat Commun 2014;5:4701
Generation of induced neuronal cells by the single reprogramming factor ASCL1.
Authors: Chanda Et al.
PLoS One 2014;3:282
Neurosteroid Agonist at GABAA receptor induces persistent neuroplasticity in VTA DA neurons.
Authors: Vashchinkina Et al.
Gap junction networks can generate both ripple-like and fast ripple-like oscillations.
Authors: Simon Et al.
Eur J Neurosci 2014;39:46
Activity-dependent regulation of dendritic complexity by semaphorin 3A through Farp1.
Authors: Cheadle and Biederer
J Biol Chem 2014;34:7999
Genetic elimination of GABAergic neurotransmission reveals two distinct pacemakers for spontaneous waves of activity in the developing mouse cortex.
Authors: Easton Et al.
J Neurosci 2014;34:3854
TrkB interacts with ErbB4 and regulates NRG1-induced NR2B phosphorylation in cortical neurons before synaptogenesis.
Authors: Pandya and Pillai
J Neurosci 2014;12:47
Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit.
Authors: Neuser Et al.
PLoS One 2013;8:e66497
Low voltage activation of KCa1.1 current by Cav3-KCa1.1 complexes.
Authors: Rehak Et al.
PLoS One 2013;8:e61844
Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY379268 regulates AMPA receptor trafficking in prefrontal cortical neurons.
Authors: Wang Et al.
PLoS One 2013;8:e61787
Medial prefrontal cortex inversely regulates toluene-induced changes in markers of synaptic plasticity of mesolimbic DA neurons.
Authors: Beckley Et al.
J Neurosci 2013;33:804
PrPC controls via protein kinase A the direction of synaptic plasticity in the immature hippocampus.
Authors: Caiati Et al.
J Neurosci 2013;33:2973
Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure reduces plasticity and alters NMDA receptor subunit composition in the dentate gyrus.
Authors: Brady Et al.
Cell Metab 2013;33:1062
SHANK3 gene mutations associated with autism facilitate ligand binding to the Shank3 ankyrin repeat region.
Authors: Mameza Et al.
J Neurosci 2013;288:26697
Activity-regulated somatostatin expression reduces dendritic spine density and lowers excitatory synaptic transmission via postsynaptic somatostatin receptor 4.
Authors: Hou and Yu
J Biol Chem 2013;288:2501
Neurons generated by direct conversion of fibroblasts reproduce synaptic phenotype caused by autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutation.
Authors: Chanda Et al.
Cell Commun Signal 2013;110:16622
Genetic inhibition of CaMKII in dorsal striatal medium spiny neurons reduces functional excitatory synapses and enhances intrinsic excitability.
Authors: Klug Et al.
PLoS One 2012;7:e45323
GABA maintains the proliferation of progenitors in the developing chick ciliary marginal zone and non-pigmented ciliary epithelium.
Authors: Ring Et al.
PLoS One 2012;7:e36874
Mind bomb-1 is an essential modulator of long-term memory and synaptic plasticity via the Notch signaling pathway.
Authors: Yoon Et al.
Mol Brain 2012;5:40
Simulated GABA synaptic input and L-type calcium channels form functional microdomains in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.
Authors: Hemond Et al.
J Neurosci 2012;32:8756
Activity-dependent regulation of inhibition via GAD67.
Authors: Lau and Murthy
J Physiol 2012;32:8521
Calcium-dependent but action potential-independent BCM-like metaplasticity in the hippocampus.
Authors: Hulme Et al.
J Neurosci 2012;32:6785
Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections.
Authors: Hnasko Et al.
J Neurosci 2012;32:15076
Neuregulin directly decreases voltage-gated sodium current in hippocampal ErbB4-expressing interneurons.
Authors: Janssen Et al.
J Neurosci 2012;32:13889
Developmental regulation of CB1-mediated spike-time dependent depression at immature mossy fiber-CA3 synapses.
Authors: Caiati Et al.
Sci Rep 2012;2:285
NMDA receptors and BAX are essential for Aβ impairment of LTP.
Authors: Olsen and Sheng
Sci Rep 2012;2:225
Kv4.2 knockout mice have hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits.
Authors: Lugo Et al.
Learn Mem 2012;19:182
Direct pharmacological monitoring of the developmental switch in NMDA receptor subunit composition using TCN 213, a GluN2A-selective, glycine-dependent antagonist.
Authors: McKay Et al.
Br J Pharmacol 2012;166:924
Independent regulation of basal neurotransmitter release efficacy by variable Ca2+ influx and bouton size at small central synapses.
Authors: Ermolyuk Et al.
PLoS Biol 2012;10:e1001396
GluN2B subunit deletion reveals key role in acute and chronic ethanol sensitivity of glutamate synapses in bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.
Authors: Wills Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109:E278
A critical role for GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in cortical development and function.
Authors: Wang Et al.
Synergistic activation of DA D1 and TrkB receptors mediate gain control of synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala.
Authors: Li Et al.
PLoS One 2011;6:e26065
Cholinergic interneurons mediate fast VGluT3-dependent glutamatergic transmission in the striatum.
Authors: Higley Et al.
PLoS One 2011;6:e19155
β-Adrenergic receptors enhance excitatory transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis through a corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor-dependent and cocaine-regulated mechanism.
Authors: Nobis Et al.
Biol Psychiatry 2011;69:1083
Pyramidal neurons are "neurogenic hubs" in the neurovascular coupling response to whisker stimulation.
Authors: Lecrux Et al.
J Neurosci 2011;31:9836
Molecular determinants controlling NMDA receptor synaptic incorporation.
Authors: Storey Et al.
J Neurosci 2011;31:6311
Delayed postnatal loss of P/Q-type calcium channels recapitulates the absence epilepsy, dyskinesia, and ataxia phenotypes of genomic Cacna1a mutations.
Authors: Mark Et al.
J Neurosci 2011;31:4311
Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in DA neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice.
Authors: Parker Et al.
J Neurosci 2011;31:17103
A diversity of synaptic filters are created by temporal summation of excitation and inhibition.
Authors: George Et al.
J Neurosci 2011;31:14721
Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing.
Authors: Lazarevic Et al.
Mol Pain 2011;31:10189
An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus.
Authors: Etherton Et al.
EMBO J 2011;30:2908
Distinct functions of kainate receptors in the brain are determined by the auxiliary subunit Neto1.
Authors: Straub Et al.
Nat Neurosci 2011;14:866
A new mode of corticothalamic transmission revealed in the Gria4(-/-) model of absence epilepsy.
Authors: Paz Et al.
J Biol Chem 2011;14:1167
Leptin does not directly affect CNS serotonin neurons to influence appetite.
Authors: Lam Et al.
Stem Cell Reports 2011;13:584
Endocannabinoids mediate synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic synapses on spiny neurons within a basal ganglia nucleus necessary for song learning.
Authors: Thompson and Perkel
J Neurophysiol 2011;105:1159
Facilitation of long-term potentiation by muscarinic M(1) receptors is mediated by inhibition of SK channels.
Authors: Buchanan Et al.
Neurexin-neuroligin cell adhesion complexes contribute to synaptotropic dendritogenesis via growth stabilization mechanisms in vivo.
Authors: Chen Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2010;67:967
Control of cerebellar long-term potentiation by P-Rex-family guanine-nucleotide exchange factors and phosphoinositide 3-kinase.
Authors: Jackson Et al.
PLoS One 2010;5:e11962
DA-dependent tuning of striatal inhibitory synaptogenesis.
Authors: Goffin Et al.
J Neurosci 2010;30:2935
Endocannabinoid signaling mediates psychomotor activation by adenosine A2A antagonists.
Authors: Lerner Et al.
J Neurosci 2010;30:2160
A glycine receptor is involved in the organization of swimming movements in an invertebrate chordate.
Authors: Nishino Et al.
BMC Neurosci 2010;11:6
Inhibitory role for GABA in autoimmune inflammation.
Authors: Bhat Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010;107:2580
Constitutively active H-ras accelerates multiple forms of plasticity in developing visual cortex.
Authors: Kaneko Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010;107:19026
A dynamic role for GABA receptors on the firing pattern of midbrain DArgic neurons.
Authors: Lobb Et al.
J Neurophysiol 2010;104:403
Novel repression of Kcc2 transcription by REST-RE-1 controls developmental switch in neuronal chloride.
Authors: Yeo Et al.
Nat Neurosci 2009;29:14652
PropF. inhibits pressure-stimulated macrophage phagocytosis via the GABAA receptor and dysregulation of p130cas phosphorylation.
Authors: Shiratsuchi Et al.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2009;296:C1400
Nerve Terminal GABAA Receptors Activate Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Signaling to Inhibit Voltage-gated Ca2+ Influx and Glutamate Release.
Authors: Long Et al.
J Neurosci 2009;284:8726
PICK1-mediated glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) trafficking contributes to cell death in oxygen/glucose-deprived hippocampal neurons.
Authors: Dixon Et al.
J Neurosci 2009;284:14230
alpha2A-adrenergic receptors heterosynaptically regulate glutamatergic transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.
Authors: Shields Et al.
Experience-dependent intrinsic plasticity in interneurons of barrel cortex layer IV.
J Neurosci 2009;102:2955
A presynaptic gain control mechanism fine-tunes olfactory behavior.
Authors: Root Et al.
Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala.
Authors: Jüngling Et al.
Low expression of Kv7/M channels facilitates intrinsic and network bursting in the developing rat hippocampus.
Authors: Safiulina Et al.
J Physiol 2008;586:5437
Input-specific plasticity at excitatory synapses mediated by endocannabinoids in the dentate gyrus.
Authors: Chiu and Castillo
Histone H2AX-dependent GABA(A) receptor regulation of stem cell proliferation.
Authors: Andäng Et al.
Alpha1-adrenergic receptor-induced heterosynaptic long-term depression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is disrupted in mouse models of affective disorders.
Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition.
Authors: Costa Et al.
J Neurosci 2008;28:8040
NMDA receptor blockade with Mem. attenuates white matter injury in a rat model of periventricular leukomalacia.
Authors: Manning Et al.
J Biol Chem 2008;28:6670
Activity-induced synaptic capture and exocytosis of the neuronal serine protease neurotrypsin.
Authors: Frischknecht Et al.
J Neurosci 2008;28:1568
Sequential changes in AMPA receptor targeting in the developing neocortical excitatory circuit.
Authors: Brill and Huguenard
PLoS One 2008;28:13918
DA enhances fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the extended amygdala by a CRF-R1-dependent process.
Authors: Kash Et al.
J Neurosci 2008;28:13856
Specific targeting of pro-death NMDA receptor signals with differing reliance on the NR2B PDZ ligand.
Authors: Soriano Et al.
J Neurosci 2008;28:10696
NMDA receptor activation potentiates inhibitory transmission through GABA receptor-associated protein-dependent exocytosis of GABA(A) receptors.
Authors: Marsden Et al.
J Neurosci 2007;27:14326
Plasticity of intrinsic excitability during long-term depression is mediated through mGluR-dependent changes in I(h) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.
Authors: Brager and Johnston
J Neurosci 2007;27:13926
Excitatory local circuits and their implications for olfactory processing in the fly antennal lobe.
Authors: Shang Et al.
Barrel map development relies on protein kinase A regulatory subunit II beta-mediated cAMP signaling.
Authors: Inan Et al.
J Neurosci 2006;26:4338
Insufficient sleep reversibly alters bidirectional synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function.
Authors: Kopp Et al.
J Neurosci 2006;26:12456
PropF. suppresses synaptic responsiveness of somatosensory relay neurons to excitatory input by potentiating GABA(A) receptor chloride channels.
Authors: Ying and Goldstein
Front Cell Neurosci 2005;1:2
Pattern-dependent, simultaneous plasticity differentially transforms the input-output relationship of a feedforward circuit.
Authors: Smith and Otis
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005;102:14901
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Reviews for Picrotoxin
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Picrotoxin stock was prepared in DMSO and diluted with ACSF to 25 micromolar concentration. Bath application of Picrotoxin blocked evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents in an ex-vivo slice preparation.
20 microM Picrotoxin concentration was used to block GABA-A receptor openings in nucleated cell membrane patches. Full block was achieved in ~30 seconds after application. Picture: GABA-A receptor openings under control conditions (top three traces) and after application of Picrotoxin (bottom trace).
Used to block GABA activity in 16 day old cortical neurons. Effective at 10 micromolar concentration. Incubated for 30 minutes before measuring bursts.
Used for electrophysiology to block GABA currents. Works as expected