Catalog Number: 1128
Biological Activity
GABAA receptor antagonist; potent CNS stimulant.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
    602.59
  • Formula:
    C30H34O13
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 50 mM in ethanol with gentle warming and to 100 mM in DMSO
  • Storage:
    Store at RT
  • CAS No:
    124-87-8
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Background References

  1. Kishimoto T et al.
    Leucocyte Typing VI. Garland Publishing Inc. London.
  2. Picrotoxin blockade of inverterbrate glutamate-gated chloride channels: subunit dependence and evidence for binding within the pore.
    Ette et al.
    J.Neurochem., 1999;72:318
  3. Enhancement by GABA of the association rate of picrotoxin and tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate to the rat cloned α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor subtype.
    Dillon et al.
    Br.J.Pharmacol., 1995;115:539
  4. On the mechanism of action of picrotoxin on GABA receptor channels in dissociated sympathetic neurones of the rat.
    Newland and Cull-Candy
    J.Physiol., 1992;447:191
Citations:

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Picrotoxin include:

76 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Feeding induced by cannabinoids is mediated independently of the melanocortin system.
    Authors: Sinnayah Et al.
    J Neurosci ;3:e2202
  2. Postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of somatostatin interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex of mice.
    Authors: Pan Et al.
    Neuron 2016;6:28137
  3. Activation of Muscarinic M1 Acetylcholine Receptors Induces Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus.
    Authors: Dennis Et al.
    J Neurosci 2016;26:414
  4. Norepinephrine Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors.
    Authors: Ghosh Et al.
    Neural Plast 2015;9:450
  5. GABAA receptor activity shapes the formation of inhibitory synapses between developing medium spiny neurons.
    Authors: Arama Et al.
    Physiol Rep 2015;9:290
  6. Endogenous 17β-estradiol is required for activity-dependent long-term potentiation in the striatum: interaction with the dopaminergic system.
    Authors: Tozzi Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2015;9:192
  7. Acid-sensing ion channel 1a drives AMPA receptor plasticity following ischaemia and acidosis in hippocampal CA1 neurons.
    Authors: Quintana Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2015;593:4373
  8. Hierarchical organization of long-range circuits in the olfactory cortices.
    Authors: Yang and Sun
    Cereb Cortex 2015;3
  9. Localization of Presynaptic Plasticity Mechanisms Enables Functional Independence of Synaptic and Ectopic Transmission in the Cerebellum.
    Authors: Dobson and Bellamy
    Sci Rep 2015;2015:602356
  10. Caffeine Modulates Vesicle Release and Recovery at Cerebellar Parallel Fibre Terminals, Independently of Calcium and Cyclic AMP Signalling.
    Authors: Dobson Et al.
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2015;10:e0125974
  11. Regulation of action potential waveforms by axonal GABAA receptors in cortical pyramidal neurons.
    Authors: Xia Et al.
    PLoS One 2014;9:e100968
  12. SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One 2014;8:e83941
  13. A local glutamate-glutamine cycle sustains synaptic excitatory transmitter release.
    Authors: Tani Et al.
    Neuron 2014;81:888
  14. Neuritin can normalize neural deficits of Alzheimer's disease.
    Authors: An Et al.
    Cell Death Dis 2014;5:e1523
  15. The MK2/3 cascade regulates AMPAR trafficking and cognitive flexibility.
    Authors: Eales Et al.
    Nat Commun 2014;5:4701
  16. Generation of induced neuronal cells by the single reprogramming factor ASCL1.
    Authors: Chanda Et al.
    PLoS One 2014;3:282
  17. Gap junction networks can generate both ripple-like and fast ripple-like oscillations.
    Authors: Simon Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci 2014;39:46
  18. Activity-dependent regulation of dendritic complexity by semaphorin 3A through Farp1.
    Authors: Cheadle and Biederer
    J Biol Chem 2014;34:7999
  19. Genetic elimination of GABAergic neurotransmission reveals two distinct pacemakers for spontaneous waves of activity in the developing mouse cortex.
    Authors: Easton Et al.
    J Neurosci 2014;34:3854
  20. TrkB interacts with ErbB4 and regulates NRG1-induced NR2B phosphorylation in cortical neurons before synaptogenesis.
    Authors: Pandya and Pillai
    J Neurosci 2014;12:47
  21. Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit.
    Authors: Neuser Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;8:e66497
  22. Low voltage activation of KCa1.1 current by Cav3-KCa1.1 complexes.
    Authors: Rehak Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;8:e61844
  23. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY379268 regulates AMPA receptor trafficking in prefrontal cortical neurons.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;8:e61787
  24. Medial prefrontal cortex inversely regulates toluene-induced changes in markers of synaptic plasticity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons.
    Authors: Beckley Et al.
    J Neurosci 2013;33:804
  25. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure reduces plasticity and alters NMDA receptor subunit composition in the dentate gyrus.
    Authors: Brady Et al.
    Cell Metab 2013;33:1062
  26. SHANK3 gene mutations associated with autism facilitate ligand binding to the Shank3 ankyrin repeat region.
    Authors: Mameza Et al.
    J Neurosci 2013;288:26697
  27. Activity-regulated somatostatin expression reduces dendritic spine density and lowers excitatory synaptic transmission via postsynaptic somatostatin receptor 4.
    Authors: Hou and Yu
    J Biol Chem 2013;288:2501
  28. Neurons generated by direct conversion of fibroblasts reproduce synaptic phenotype caused by autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutation.
    Authors: Chanda Et al.
    Cell Commun Signal 2013;110:16622
  29. GABA maintains the proliferation of progenitors in the developing chick ciliary marginal zone and non-pigmented ciliary epithelium.
    Authors: Ring Et al.
    PLoS One 2012;7:e36874
  30. Mind bomb-1 is an essential modulator of long-term memory and synaptic plasticity via the Notch signaling pathway.
    Authors: Yoon Et al.
    Mol Brain 2012;5:40
  31. Simulated GABA synaptic input and L-type calcium channels form functional microdomains in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.
    Authors: Hemond Et al.
    J Neurosci 2012;32:8756
  32. Activity-dependent regulation of inhibition via GAD67.
    Authors: Lau and Murthy
    J Physiol 2012;32:8521
  33. Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections.
    Authors: Hnasko Et al.
    J Neurosci 2012;32:15076
  34. Neuregulin directly decreases voltage-gated sodium current in hippocampal ErbB4-expressing interneurons.
    Authors: Janssen Et al.
    J Neurosci 2012;32:13889
  35. Developmental regulation of CB1-mediated spike-time dependent depression at immature mossy fiber-CA3 synapses.
    Authors: Caiati Et al.
    Sci Rep 2012;2:285
  36. NMDA receptors and BAX are essential for Aβ impairment of LTP.
    Authors: Olsen and Sheng
    Sci Rep 2012;2:225
  37. Kv4.2 knockout mice have hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits.
    Authors: Lugo Et al.
    Learn Mem 2012;19:182
  38. Independent regulation of basal neurotransmitter release efficacy by variable Ca2+ influx and bouton size at small central synapses.
    Authors: Ermolyuk Et al.
    PLoS Biol 2012;10:e1001396
  39. GluN2B subunit deletion reveals key role in acute and chronic ethanol sensitivity of glutamate synapses in bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.
    Authors: Wills Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109:E278
  40. A critical role for GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in cortical development and function.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    Neuron 2011;72:789
  41. Cholinergic interneurons mediate fast VGluT3-dependent glutamatergic transmission in the striatum.
    Authors: Higley Et al.
    PLoS One 2011;6:e19155
  42. Molecular determinants controlling NMDA receptor synaptic incorporation.
    Authors: Storey Et al.
    J Neurosci 2011;31:6311
  43. Delayed postnatal loss of P/Q-type calcium channels recapitulates the absence epilepsy, dyskinesia, and ataxia phenotypes of genomic Cacna1a mutations.
    Authors: Mark Et al.
    J Neurosci 2011;31:4311
  44. Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice.
    Authors: Parker Et al.
    J Neurosci 2011;31:17103
  45. A diversity of synaptic filters are created by temporal summation of excitation and inhibition.
    Authors: George Et al.
    J Neurosci 2011;31:14721
  46. Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing.
    Authors: Lazarevic Et al.
    Mol Pain 2011;31:10189
  47. An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus.
    Authors: Etherton Et al.
    EMBO J 2011;30:2908
  48. Distinct functions of kainate receptors in the brain are determined by the auxiliary subunit Neto1.
    Authors: Straub Et al.
    Nat Neurosci 2011;14:866
  49. A new mode of corticothalamic transmission revealed in the Gria4(-/-) model of absence epilepsy.
    Authors: Paz Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2011;14:1167
  50. Leptin does not directly affect CNS serotonin neurons to influence appetite.
    Authors: Lam Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports 2011;13:584
  51. Facilitation of long-term potentiation by muscarinic M(1) receptors is mediated by inhibition of SK channels.
    Authors: Buchanan Et al.
    Neuron 2010;68:948
  52. Neurexin-neuroligin cell adhesion complexes contribute to synaptotropic dendritogenesis via growth stabilization mechanisms in vivo.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2010;67:967
  53. Control of cerebellar long-term potentiation by P-Rex-family guanine-nucleotide exchange factors and phosphoinositide 3-kinase.
    Authors: Jackson Et al.
    PLoS One 2010;5:e11962
  54. Dopamine-dependent tuning of striatal inhibitory synaptogenesis.
    Authors: Goffin Et al.
    J Neurosci 2010;30:2935
  55. A glycine receptor is involved in the organization of swimming movements in an invertebrate chordate.
    Authors: Nishino Et al.
    BMC Neurosci 2010;11:6
  56. Inhibitory role for GABA in autoimmune inflammation.
    Authors: Bhat Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010;107:2580
  57. Constitutively active H-ras accelerates multiple forms of plasticity in developing visual cortex.
    Authors: Kaneko Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010;107:19026
  58. A dynamic role for GABA receptors on the firing pattern of midbrain dopaminergic neurons.
    Authors: Lobb Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2010;104:403
  59. Novel repression of Kcc2 transcription by REST-RE-1 controls developmental switch in neuronal chloride.
    Authors: Yeo Et al.
    Nat Neurosci 2009;29:14652
  60. Propofol inhibits pressure-stimulated macrophage phagocytosis via the GABAA receptor and dysregulation of p130cas phosphorylation.
    Authors: Shiratsuchi Et al.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2009;296:C1400
  61. Nerve Terminal GABAA Receptors Activate Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Signaling to Inhibit Voltage-gated Ca2+ Influx and Glutamate Release.
    Authors: Long Et al.
    J Neurosci 2009;284:8726
  62. PICK1-mediated glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) trafficking contributes to cell death in oxygen/glucose-deprived hippocampal neurons.
    Authors: Dixon Et al.
    J Neurosci 2009;284:14230
  63. Experience-dependent intrinsic plasticity in interneurons of barrel cortex layer IV.
    Authors: Sun
    J Neurosci 2009;102:2955
  64. A presynaptic gain control mechanism fine-tunes olfactory behavior.
    Authors: Root Et al.
    Neuron 2008;59:311
  65. Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala.
    Authors: Jüngling Et al.
    Neuron 2008;59:298
  66. Histone H2AX-dependent GABA(A) receptor regulation of stem cell proliferation.
    Authors: Andäng Et al.
    Nature 2008;451:460
  67. Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition.
    Authors: Costa Et al.
    J Neurosci 2008;28:8040
  68. NMDA receptor blockade with memantine attenuates white matter injury in a rat model of periventricular leukomalacia.
    Authors: Manning Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2008;28:6670
  69. Activity-induced synaptic capture and exocytosis of the neuronal serine protease neurotrypsin.
    Authors: Frischknecht Et al.
    J Neurosci 2008;28:1568
  70. Sequential changes in AMPA receptor targeting in the developing neocortical excitatory circuit.
    Authors: Brill and Huguenard
    PLoS One 2008;28:13918
  71. Dopamine enhances fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the extended amygdala by a CRF-R1-dependent process.
    Authors: Kash Et al.
    J Neurosci 2008;28:13856
  72. Specific targeting of pro-death NMDA receptor signals with differing reliance on the NR2B PDZ ligand.
    Authors: Soriano Et al.
    J Neurosci 2008;28:10696
  73. Barrel map development relies on protein kinase A regulatory subunit II beta-mediated cAMP signaling.
    Authors: Inan Et al.
    J Neurosci 2006;26:4338
  74. Insufficient sleep reversibly alters bidirectional synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function.
    Authors: Kopp Et al.
    J Neurosci 2006;26:12456
  75. Propofol suppresses synaptic responsiveness of somatosensory relay neurons to excitatory input by potentiating GABA(A) receptor chloride channels.
    Authors: Ying and Goldstein
    Front Cell Neurosci 2005;1:2
  76. Pattern-dependent, simultaneous plasticity differentially transforms the input-output relationship of a feedforward circuit.
    Authors: Smith and Otis
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005;102:14901
Expand to show all 76 Citations

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