Recombinant Human Integrin alpha 4 beta 1 Protein, CF
Recombinant Human Integrin alpha 4 beta 1 Protein, CF Summary
100 μL/well), approximately 45%-75% will adhere after 1 hour at 37 °C.
|Human Integrin alpha 4
(Tyr34-Gln970 (Arg591Leu & Arg878Gln))
Accession # P13612
|Acidic Tail||6-His tag|
|Human Integrin beta 1
Accession # P05556
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 200 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Background: Integrin alpha 4 beta 1
Integrin alpha 4 beta 1, also called VLA4, is an integrin family adhesion receptor that shares the beta 1 subunit with eleven other family members and the alpha 4 subunit with integrin alpha 4 beta 7 (1 - 4). The non-covalent heterodimer of 150 kDa alpha 4/CD49d and 130 kDa beta 1/CD29 type I transmembrane glycoprotein subunits mediates cell adhesion to VCAM-1/CD106 on other cells and the CS-1 fragment of fibronectin in the extracellular matrix (2 - 4). The alpha 4 extracellular domain (ECD) contains an N-terminal beta -propeller structure, followed by domains termed thigh, calf-1 and calf-2 (1). The beta 1 ECD contains a vWFA domain, which interacts with the alpha 4 beta -propeller to form a binding domain when the dimer is in active, extended and open conformation. Each subunit has a transmembrane sequence and a short cytoplasmic tail. The 944 aa human alpha 4 extracellular domain (ECD) shares 85% aa identity with mouse, rat and canine alpha 4, while the 708 aa human beta 1 ECD shares 92 - 96% aa identity with rat, bovine, mouse, and feline beta 1. Five alternate splice forms of the human beta 1 cytoplasmic domain, including one antagonistic form, vary by 12 to 48 aa and show differential expression patterns (5). Leukocytes (except for neutrophils), erythroid precursors and some non-hematopoietic cells such as epicardial, endothelial and smooth muscle precursors, Schwann cells, and chorionic cells express alpha 4 beta 1 (6 - 10). Deletion is lethal in the mouse embryo due to faulty placentation and development of the epicardium and coronary vessels (7, 10). In the adult, alpha 4 beta 1 primarily regulates immune cell migration (11 - 13). Circulating leukocyte alpha 4 beta 1 is rapidly activated by inflamed endothelial cells that present VCAM-1 and chemokines such as SDF-1 (11). This activation facilitates rolling, firm adhesion, and extravasation. Interfering with leukocyte migration via the therapeutic alpha 4 beta 1antibody Natalizumab can reduce the severity of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis (12). Natalizumab can also mobilize hematopoietic precursors from the bone marrow by impeding their interaction with stromal cell VCAM-1 (8, 12). During immune cell activation, alpha 4 beta 1 can function as a costimulatory molecule (13, 14).
- Luo, B-H. et al. (2007) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 25:619.
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- Yang, J.T. et al. (1995) Development 121:549.
- Sheppard, A.M. et al. (1994) Cell Adhes. Commun. 2:27.
- Haack, H. and R.O. Hynes (2001) Dev. Biol. 233:38.
- Grazioli, A. et al. (2006) Dev. Biol. 293:165.
- Alon, R. and K. Ley (2008) Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 20:525.
- Bauer, M. et al. (2009) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106:1920.
- Banerjee, E.R. et al. (2008) Exp. Hematol. 36:1004.
- Nguyen, K. et al. (2008) Immunity 28:810.
Citations for Recombinant Human Integrin alpha 4 beta 1 Protein, CF
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 4
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CagY-Dependent Regulation of Type IV Secretion in Helicobacter pylori Is Associated with Alterations in Integrin Binding
Authors: EC Skoog, VA Morikis, ME Martin, GA Foster, LP Cai, LM Hansen, B Li, JA Gaddy, SI Simon, JV Solnick
Select gp120 V2 domain specific antibodies derived from HIV and SIV infection and vaccination inhibit gp120 binding to ?4?7
Authors: S Lertjuthap, C Cicala, D Van Ryk, M Liu, J Yolitz, D Wei, F Nawaz, A Doyle, B Horowitch, C Park, S Lu, Y Lou, S Wang, R Pan, X Jiang, F Villinger, SN Byrareddy, PJ Santangelo, L Morris, CK Wibmer, K Biris, RD Mason, J Gorman, J Hiatt, E Martinelli, M Roederer, D Fujikawa, G Gorini, G Franchini, A Arakelyan, AA Ansari, K Pattanapan, XP Kong, AS Fauci, J Arthos
PLoS Pathog., 2018;14(8):e1007278.
Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
Applications: Surface Plasmon Resonance
The interaction affinity between vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) analyzed by quantitative FRET.
Authors: Chakraborty S, Hu S, Wu S, Karmenyan A, Chiou A
PLoS ONE, 2015;10(3):e0121399.
Sample Types: Protein
The role of glycoprotein H of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4) in cellular host range and integrin binding.
Authors: Azab W, Zajic L, Osterrieder N
Vet Res, 2012;43(1):61.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
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