Recombinant Human Latent Activin A Protein, CF Summary
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Recombinant Human Latent Activin A (Catalog #
9129-LA) induces hemoglobin expression in K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. The ED50 is 0.6-3.6 ng/mL.
Background: Activin A
Activin and Inhibin are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines and are involved in a wide range of biological processes including tissue morphogenesis and repair, fibrosis, inflammation, neural development, hematopoiesis, reproductive system function, and carcinogenesis (1-7). The amino terminal propeptides of Activin and Inhibin are proteolytically cleaved and facilitate formation of disulfide-linked dimers of the bioactive proteins (8, 9). The propeptide of Activin remains associated with the bioactive protein in a latent complex that retains the ability to bind its receptors (10). Activins are nonglycosylated homodimers or heterodimers of various beta subunits ( beta A, beta B, beta C, and beta E in mammals), while Inhibins are heterodimers of a unique alpha subunit and one of the beta subunits. Activin A is a widely expressed homodimer of two beta A chains. The beta A subunit can also heterodimerize with a beta B or beta C subunit to form Activin AB and Activin AC, respectively (11). The 14 kDa mature human beta A chain shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with bovine, feline, mouse, porcine, and rat beta A. Activin A exerts its biological activities by binding to the type 2 serine/threonine kinase Activin RIIA which then noncovalently associates with the type 1 serine/threonine kinase Activin RIB/ALK-4 (7, 12). Signaling through this receptor complex leads to Smad activation and regulation of activin-responsive gene transcription (7, 12). The bioactivity of Activin A is regulated by a variety of mechanisms (12). BAMBI, Betaglycan, and Cripto are cell-associated molecules that function as decoy receptors or limit the ability of Activin A to induce receptor complex assembly (13-15). The intracellular formation of Activin A can be prevented by the incorporation of the beta A subunit into Activin AC or Inhibin A (3, 11). And the bioavailability of Activin A is restricted by its incorporation into inactive complexes with alpha 2-Macroglobulin, Follistatin, and FLRG (16, 17).
- Kumanov, P. et al. (2005) Reprod. Biomed. Online 10:786.
- Maeshima, A. et al. (2008) Endocr. J. 55:1.
- Rodgarkia-Dara, C. et al. (2006) Mutat. Res. 613:123.
- Werner, S. and C. Alzheimer (2006) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 17:157.
- Xu, P. and A.K. Hall (2006) Dev. Biol. 299:303.
- Shav-Tal, Y. and D. Zipori (2002) Stem Cells 20:493.
- Chen, Y.G. et al. (2006) Exp. Biol. Med. 231:534.
- Gray, A.M. and A.J. Mason (1990) Science 247:1328.
- Mason, A.J. et al. (1996) Mol. Endocrinol. 10:1055.
- Walton, K.L. et al. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284:9311.
- Thompson, T.B. et al. (2004) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 225:9.
- Harrison, C.A. et al. (2005) Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 16:73.
- Onichtchouk, D. et al. (1999) Nature 401:480.
- Gray, P.C. et al. (2002) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 188:254.
- Kelber, J.A. et al. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283:4490.
- Phillips, D.J. et al. (1997) J. Endocrinol. 155:65.
- Schneyer, A. et al. (2003) Endocrinology 144:1671.
No product specific FAQs exist for this product, however you mayView all Proteins and Enzyme FAQs
Reviews for Recombinant Human Latent Activin A Protein, CF
There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to review Recombinant Human Latent Activin A Protein, CF and earn rewards!
Have you used Recombinant Human Latent Activin A Protein, CF?
Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.
$25/€18/£15/$25CAN/¥75 Yuan/¥1250 Yen for a review with an image
$10/€7/£6/$10 CAD/¥70 Yuan/¥1110 Yen for a review without an image