Recombinant Human Midkine Protein, CF

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Recombinant Human Midkine Protein, CF Summary

Product Specifications

>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
Endotoxin Level
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Measured by its ability to enhance neurite outgrowth of E16-E18 rat embryonic cerebral cortical neurons. Muramatsu, H. and T. Muramatsu (1991) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commu. 177:652. Optimal neurite outgrowth was observed when neurons were plated on 96-well culture plates that had been pre-coated with 100 µL/well of a solution of 3.0-8.0 µg/mL of rhMK.
E. coli-derived human Midkine protein
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Predicted Molecular Mass
13.3 kDa

Product Datasheets

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Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.


Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS. Reconstituted rhMK should be used immediately or aliquoted and stored at -20° C to -70° C.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
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Background: Midkine

Midkine (MK) is a 15 kDa heparin-binding molecule originally cloned during a search for genes preferentially transcribed during retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation. Midkine belongs to a family of neurotrophic and developmentally-regulated heparin-binding molecules consisting of midkine, pleiotrophin (PTN/HBNF/OSF-1/HNGF-8) and the avian midkine homolog, RI-HB (for retinoic acid-inducible heparin-binding protein).

Midkine is a highly basic, nonglycosylated polypeptide that contains five intrachain disulfide bonds. The predicted molecular weight is approximately 13.3 kDa, based on a mature peptide length of 118 amino acid residues in the mouse and 121 amino acid residues in the human. Across species, MK shows 87% identity between the human and murine proteins. Between family members, human MK is approximately 50% identical to human PTN, with conservation of all 10 cysteines. Initial structure-function studies indicate that the C-terminal half of MK contains the principal heparin-binding site plus the molecule’s antigenicity and neurite-promoting sequences; while both the C- and N-termini are necessary for the molecule’s neurotrophic effects. Cells known to produce MK include endothelial cells, fetal astrocytes, renal proximal tubule epithelial cells and Wilms’ (kidney) tumor cells. MK has also been identified in the senile plaques of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The pattern of expression of midkine during development strongly suggests a role for this factor both in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and in development of the nervous system.

  1. Bohlen, P. and I. Kovesdi (1991) Prog. Growth Factor Res. 3:143.
  2. Muramatsu, T. (1993) Int. J. Dev. Biol. 37:183.
Entrez Gene IDs
4192 (Human); 17242 (Mouse)
Alternate Names
Amphiregulin-associated protein; ARAP; MDK; MEK; Midgestation and kidney protein; midkine (neurite growth-promoting factor 2); Midkine; MK1; MKARAP; NEGF2; NEGF2FLJ27379; Neurite outgrowth-promoting factor 2; Neurite outgrowth-promoting protein

Citations for Recombinant Human Midkine Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

7 Citations: Showing 1 - 7
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  1. Serum circulating proteins from pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy patients cause pathologic remodeling and cardiomyocyte stiffness
    Authors: DA Jeffrey, J Pires Da S, AM Garcia, X Jiang, A Karimpour-, LS Toni, T Lanzicher, B Peña, CA Miyano, K Nunley, A Korst, O Sbaizero, MR Taylor, SD Miyamoto, BL Stauffer, CC Sucharov
    JCI Insight, 2021-10-08;0(0):.
    Species: Rats
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. Midkine promotes hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by elevating anoikis resistance of circulating tumor cells
    Authors: B Sun, C Hu, Z Yang, X Zhang, L Zhao, J Xiong, J Ma, L Chen, H Qian, X Luo, L Shi, J Li, X Cheng, Z Yin
    Oncotarget, 2017-05-16;8(20):32523-32535.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. Composition of glycosaminoglycans in elasmobranchs including several deep-sea sharks: identification of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate from the dried fins of Isurus oxyrinchus and Prionace glauca.
    Authors: Higashi K, Takeuchi Y, Mukuno A, Tomitori H, Miya M, Linhardt R, Toida T
    PLoS ONE, 2015-03-24;10(3):e0120860.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Surface Plasmon Resonance
  4. The multifunctional growth factor midkine promotes proliferation and migration in pancreatic cancer.
    Authors: Rawnaq T, Dietrich L, Wolters-Eisfeld G, Uzunoglu F, Vashist Y, Bachmann K, Simon R, Izbicki J, Bockhorn M, Gungor C
    Mol Cancer Res, 2014-02-24;12(5):670-80.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. Increased trabecular bone formation in mice lacking the growth factor midkine.
    Authors: Neunaber C, Catala-Lehnen P, Beil FT
    J. Bone Miner. Res., 2010-08-01;25(8):1724-35.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  6. Midkine enhances soft-tissue sarcoma growth: a possible novel therapeutic target.
    Authors: Jin Z, Lahat G, Korchin B, Nguyen T, Zhu QS, Wang X, Lazar AJ, Trent J, Pollock RE, Lev D
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2008-08-15;14(16):5033-42.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  7. The anti-HIV cytokine midkine binds the cell surface-expressed nucleolin as a low affinity receptor.
    Authors: Said EA, Krust B, Nisole S, Svab J, Briand JP, Hovanessian AG
    J. Biol. Chem., 2002-07-29;277(40):37492-502.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay


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Recombinant Human Midkine Protein, CF
By Anonymous on 06/19/2019
Application: Immunoassay Standard