Recombinant Human PD-L2 Fc Biotinylated Protein, CF
Recombinant Human PD-L2 Fc Biotinylated Protein, CF Summary
Accession # Q9BQ51
Biotinylated via sugars
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
When Recombinant Human PD-1 Fc Chimera Recom-binant Human PD-1 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 1086-PD) is coated at 0.1 µg/mL, Biotinylated Recom-binant Human PD-L2 Fc Chimera (Catalog # BT1224) binds with an ED50 of 0.04-0.24 µg/mL.
In a functional flow cytometry test, (A) Recombinant Human PD-L2 Fc Biotinylated Protein (Catalog # BT1224) binds to HEK293 human embryonic kidney cell line transfected with recombinant human PD-1 and EGFP. Ligand binding was detected by staining cells with APC-conjugated Streptavidin (Catalog # F0050), which does not stain the cells in the absence of recombinant protein (B).
Programmed Death Ligand 2 (PD-L2), also known as B7-DC and butyrophilin-like protein, is a member of the B7 family of proteins that provide signals for regulating T-cell activation and tolerance (1). Mature human PD-L2 consists of a 201 amino acid (aa) extracellular domain (ECD) with one V-like and one C-like Ig domain, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 32 aa cytoplasmic domain (2, 3). Within the ECD, mouse and human PD-L2 share 72% aa sequence identity. Alternative splicing generates additional isoforms that lack the second Ig-like domain and may be substituted and truncated following the first Ig-like domain (4). PD-L2 is expressed on dendritic cells, subsets of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and memory B cells that differentiate into plasma cells (3, 5, 6). At inflammatory sites such as rheumatoid arthritis, allergen exposure, and virus infection, PD-L2 is up-regulated on synoviocytes, infiltrating macrophages, dendritic cells, and airway epithelial cells (7-11). PD-L2, along with B7-H1/PD-L1, binds to T cell PD-1 where it promotes IFN-gamma production and CD40 Ligand up-regulation while inhibiting IL-4 production (2, 3, 12, 13). In addition, PD-L2 binds to RGM-B on macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells, supporting respiratory immune tolerance (14). In asthma, PD-L2 suppresses IL-5 and IL-13 production, promotes IL-12 production by dendritic cells, and supports allergen-induced airway hyper-responsiveness and mucus production (9, 11).
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