Recombinant Human VEGF 121 (aa 207-327) Protein, CF

Formulations:
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
4644-VS-010/CF
Product Details
Citations (12)
FAQs
Reviews

Recombinant Human VEGF 121 (aa 207-327) Protein, CF Summary

Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Endotoxin Level
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured in a cell proliferation assay using HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Conn, G. et al. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:1323. The ED50 for this effect is 0.5-3 ng/mL.
Source
E. coli-derived human VEGF protein
Ala207-Arg327, with an N-terminal Met & Pro208-Arg327
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Met & Pro208
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Predicted Molecular Mass
14 kDa

Product Datasheets

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

4644-VS/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in HCl.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

4644-VS

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in HCl with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

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Background: VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF or VEGF-A), also known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a potent mediator of both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in the fetus and adult (1-3). It is a member of the PDGF family that is characterized by the presence of eight conserved cysteine residues and a cysteine-knot structure (4). Humans express alternately spliced isoforms of 121, 145, 165, 183, 189, and 206 amino acids (aa) in length (4). VEGF165 appears to be the most abundant and potent isoform, followed by VEGF121 and VEGF189 (3, 4). VEGF121 is the only form that lacks a basic heparin-binding region and is freely diffusible (4). Mouse embryos expressing only the corresponding isoform (VEGF120) do not survive to term, and show defects in skeletogenesis (5). Human VEGF121 shares 87% aa sequence identity with corresponding regions of mouse and rat, 93% with feline, equine and bovine, and 91%, 95% and 96% with ovine, canine and porcine VEGF, respectively. VEGF binds the type I transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases VEGF R1 (also called Flt-1) and VEGF R2 (Flk-1/KDR) on endothelial cells (4). Although VEGF affinity is highest for binding to VEGF R1, VEGF R2 appears to be the primary mediator of VEGF angiogenic activity (3, 4). VEGF165 binds the semaphorin receptor, Neuropilin-1; VEGF121 binding has also been reported (6). VEGF is required during embryogenesis to regulate the proliferation, migration, and survival of endothelial cells (3, 4). In adults, VEGF functions mainly in wound healing and the female reproductive cycle (3). Pathologically, it is involved in tumor angiogenesis and vascular leakage (7, 8). Circulating VEGF levels correlate with disease activity in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus (9). VEGF is induced by hypoxia and cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, oncostatin M and TNF-alpha (3, 4, 10).

References
  1. Leung, D.W. et al. (1989) Science 246:1306.
  2. Keck, P.J. et al. (1989) Science 246:1309.
  3. Byrne, A.M. et al. (2005) J. Cell. Mol. Med. 9:777.
  4. Robinson, C.J. and S.E. Stringer (2001) J. Cell. Sci. 114:853.
  5. Zelzer, E. et al. (2002) Development 129:1893.
  6. Pan, Q. et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282:24049.
  7. Weis, S.M. and D.A. Cheresh (2005) Nature 437:497.
  8. Thurston, G. (2002) J. Anat. 200:575.
  9. Carvalho, J.F. et al. (2007) J. Clin. Immunol. 27:246.
  10. Angelo, L.S. and R. Kurzrock (2007) Clin. Cancer Res. 13:2825.
Long Name
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
Entrez Gene IDs
7422 (Human); 22339 (Mouse); 83785 (Rat); 281572 (Bovine); 403802 (Canine); 493845 (Feline); 30682 (Zebrafish)
Alternate Names
MVCD1; VAS; vascular endothelial growth factor A; Vascular permeability factor; Vasculotropin; VEGF; VEGFA; VEGF-A; VEGFMGC70609; VPF; VPFvascular endothelial growth factor

Citations for Recombinant Human VEGF 121 (aa 207-327) Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

12 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Calcium dobesilate reduces VEGF signaling by interfering with heparan sulfate binding site and protects from vascular complications in diabetic mice
    Authors: F Njau, N Shushakova, H Schenk, VC Wulfmeyer, R Bollin, J Menne, H Haller
    PLoS ONE, 2020;15(1):e0218494.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. A VEGF-A/SOX2/SRSF2 network controls VEGFR1 pre-mRNA alternative splicing in lung carcinoma cells
    Authors: C Abou Fayca, S Gazzeri, B Eymin
    Sci Rep, 2019;9(1):336.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. Growth Factor-like Gene Regulation Is Separable from Survival and Maturation in Antibody-Secreting Cells
    Authors: S Stephenson, MA Care, I Fan, A Zougman, DR Westhead, GM Doody, RM Tooze
    J. Immunol., 2019;202(4):1287-1300.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. VEGF-A-Cleavage by FSAP and Inhibition of Neo-Vascularization
    Authors: Ö Uslu, J Herold, S M Kanse
    Cells, 2019;8(11):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. Engineered ligand-based VEGFR antagonists with increased receptor binding affinity more effectively inhibit angiogenesis
    Authors: S Kapur, AP Silverman, AZ Ye, N Papo, D Jindal, MS Blumenkran, JR Cochran
    Bioeng Transl Med, 2017;2(1):81-91.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  6. Monitoring response to anti-angiogenic mTOR inhibitor therapy in vivo using (111)In-bevacizumab
    Authors: N Patel, S Able, D Allen, E Fokas, B Cornelisse, FV Gleeson, AL Harris, KA Vallis
    EJNMMI Res, 2017;7(1):49.
    Applications: Western Blot
  7. The docking protein FRS2alpha is a critical regulator of VEGF receptors signaling.
    Authors: Chen P, Qin L, Zhuang Z, Tellides G, Lax I, Schlessinger J, Simons M
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2014;111(15):5514-9.
  8. Heparin binding VEGF isoforms attenuate hyperoxic embryonic lung growth retardation via a FLK1-neuropilin-1-PKC dependent pathway.
    Authors: Esquibies A, Karihaloo A, Quaggin S, Bazzy-Asaad A, Cantley L
    Respir Res, 2014;15(0):32.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: Bioassay
  9. Fluorescent resonance energy transfer imaging of VEGFR dimerization.
    Authors: Ahmadova Z, Yagublu V, Forg T, Hajiyeva Y, Jesenofsky R, Hafner M, Keese M
    Anticancer Res, 2014;34(5):2123-33.
    Species: Hamster
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. Characterisation of syncytiotrophoblast vesicles in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia: expression of Flt-1 and endoglin.
    Authors: Tannetta D, Dragovic R, Gardiner C, Redman C, Sargent I
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(2):e56754.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  11. The 12th-14th type III repeats of fibronectin function as a highly promiscuous growth factor-binding domain.
    Authors: Martino MM, Hubbell JA
    FASEB J., 2010;24(12):4711-21.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Surface Plasmon Resonance
  12. VEGF(121)b, a new member of the VEGF(xxx)b family of VEGF-A splice isoforms, inhibits neovascularisation and tumour growth in vivo.
    Authors: Rennel ES, Varey AH, Churchill AJ, Wheatley ER, Stewart L, Mather S, Bates DO, Harper SJ
    Br. J. Cancer, 2009;101(7):1183-93.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay

FAQs

  1. The vial is supposed to contain lyophilized protein but it appears to be empty. Is there anything in it?

    • Pellets can be dislodged during shipping and become disbursed on the vial wall and in the cap. Centrifuge or tap the vial on the benchtop to return this material to the vial bottom. If this does not reveal a pellet, closely inspect the cone of the vial. Some pellets appear as only a tiny amount of material or as a transparent film due to the original buffer formulation. This is a normal appearance for many proteins. For example, if the product is originally lyophilized from a solvent such as acetonitrile or ethanol, and supplied carrier-free, you may not be able to detect the pellet with the naked eye. This does not mean the vial is empty. Reconstitute the vial as directed. After reconstitution, protein concentration can be tested with a spectrophotometer.

  2. What is the recommended method for reconstitution of a lyophilized protein or antibody?

    • Unless more specific directions are on the Certificate of Analysis provided with the product, we suggest the following procedure to ensure optimal recovery: 1. Allow the vial and reconstitution buffer to equilibrate to room temperature. 2. Briefly centrifuge the vial to ensure that all lyophiliate is collected at the bottom of the vial. 3. Add the amount of buffer required to achieve the concentration recommended on the product insert. 4. Allow the vial to reconstitute for 15-30 minutes at room temperature with gentle agitation, like on a rocker platform or rotating by hand.  Avoid vigorous shaking that can cause foaming and protein denaturation. 5. Aliquot into volumes greater than 20 μL and store as indicated on the product insert. If the vial exhibits flakes or particulates, mix the product for a couple of hours at room temperature and then at 4oC overnight. Contact Technical Service if product does not go into solution.  

       

  3. Are R&D Systems recombinant proteins and antibodies sterile?

    • Although the vials are bottled using aseptic techniques, heat-treated vials, and sterile stock solutions, they are not considered or guaranteed to be sterile. If sterile material is needed for an experiment, the material can be filtered through a 0.2 micron filter designed for use with biological fluids.

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