Recombinant Mouse CX3CL1/Fractalkine (Full Length) Protein

Carrier Free

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
472-FF-025/CF

With Carrier

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
472-FF-025
R&D Systems Recombinant Proteins and Enzymes
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Citations (11)
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Recombinant Mouse CX3CL1/Fractalkine (Full Length) Protein Summary

Product Specifications

Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its ability to chemoattract freshly isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The ED50 for this effect is 0.2-0.6 µg/mL. Measured by its ability to chemoattract BaF3 mouse pro‑B cells transfected with mouse CX3CR1. The ED50 for this effect is 0.03-0.12 μg/mL.
Source
Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf 21 (baculovirus)-derived mouse CX3CL1/Fractalkine protein
Gln25-Arg337, with a C-terminal 6-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
No results obtained: Gln25 predicted
Predicted Molecular Mass
34 kDa
SDS-PAGE
90 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

472-FF (with carrier)

472-FF/CF (carrier free)

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

472-FF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 10 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

472-FF/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

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Background: CX3CL1/Fractalkine

Fractalkine, designated CX3CL1 and also known as neurotactin, is the only member of the CX3C, or delta, chemokine subfamily (1 ‑ 4). Unlike most other chemokines, CX3CL1 is a type I transmembrane (TM) adhesion protein (1). The mouse CX3CL1 cDNA encodes 395 amino acids (aa), including a signal sequence (aa 1 ‑ 24), a chemokine domain (aa 25 ‑ 100), a mucin stalk region (aa 101 ‑ 336), a transmembrane segment (aa 337 ‑ 357), and a cytoplasmic tail (aa 358 ‑ 395). The chemokine domain contains binding and chemotactic determinants, while the mucin stalk appears to function only as a spacer (4, 5). Mouse CX3CL1 shares 85% and 78% aa sequence identity with rat and human CX3CL1, respectively, within the chemokine domain, but lower sequence identity within other domains. CX3CL1 is up‑regulated by pro‑inflammatory stimuli, especially IFN‑ gamma and TNF‑ alpha, on cell types including macrophages, dendritic cells, endothelium, neurons, smooth muscle and epithelium lining the intestines and other tubules (1, 8, 9). The 40 kDa, 7‑TM non‑glycosylated G‑protein coupled CX3CL1 receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed by cytotoxic effector cells and cytokine producers, including type I helper and cytotoxic T cells, gamma δ T cells, CD16+ NK cells, monocytes and microglia (1, 2). The 95 ‑ 100 kDa TM CX3CL1 can be inducibly cleaved near the TM segment by ADAM10 or ADAM17 to generate a 60 ‑ 80 kDa soluble form (6, 7). TM CX3CL1 functions as an adhesion molecule, while both forms are chemoattractants for target cells expressing CX3CR1 (1, 2). During extravasation, membrane‑bound CX3CL1 traps leukocytes, then is cleaved to allow diapedesis (6). In coronary artery disease, soluble CX3CL1 and CD8+ T cell CX3CR1 are overexpressed and appear to contribute to pathogenesis (1, 10). In the brain, CX3CL1/CX3CR1 interaction protects against microglial neurotoxicity (11). CX3CL1 also contributes to wound healing by recruiting macrophages, and to bone resorption by recruiting and mediating adhesion of osteoclast precursors (12, 13).

References
  1. Stievano, L. et al. (2004) Crit. Rev. Immunol. 24:205.
  2. Umehara, H. et al. (2004) Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 24:34.
  3. Rossi, D.L. et al. (1998) Genomics 47:163.
  4. Mizoue, L.S. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:33906.
  5. Harrison, J.K. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:21632.
  6. Hundhausen, C. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:8064.        
  7. Tsou, C. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:44622.
  8. Tarozzo, G. et al. (2003) J. Neurosci. Res. 73:81.
  9. Lucas, A.D. et al. (2001) Am. J. Pathol. 158:855.
  10. Damas, J.K. et al. (2005) Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 25:2567.
  11. Cardona, A.E. et al. (2006) Nat. Neurosci. 9:917.
  12. Koizumi, K. et al. (2009) J. Immunol. 183:7825.
  13. Ishida, Y. et al. (2008) J. Immunol. 180:569.
Entrez Gene IDs
6376 (Human); 20312 (Mouse); 89808 (Rat); 102117496 (Cynomolgus Monkey)
Alternate Names
ABCD-3; C3Xkine; chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1; CX3C membrane-anchored chemokine; CX3CL1; CXC3; CXC3C; FKN; Fractalkine; Neurotactin; neurotactin); NTNsmall inducible cytokine subfamily D (Cys-X3-Cys), member 1 (fractalkine; NTTSmall-inducible cytokine D1; SCYD1C-X3-C motif chemokine 1; small inducible cytokine subfamily D (Cys-X3-Cys), member-1

Citations for Recombinant Mouse CX3CL1/Fractalkine (Full Length) Protein

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

11 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. An overlooked subset of Cx3cr1wt/wt microglia in the Cx3cr1CreER-Eyfp/wt mouse has a repopulation advantage over Cx3cr1CreER-Eyfp/wt microglia following microglial depletion
    Authors: K Zhou, J Han, H Lund, NR Boggavarap, VM Lauschke, S Goto, H Cheng, Y Wang, A Tachi, C Xie, K Zhu, Y Sun, AM Osman, D Liang, W Han, K Gemzell-Da, C Betsholtz, XM Zhang, C Zhu, M Enge, B Joseph, RA Harris, K Blomgren
    Journal of Neuroinflammation, 2022;19(1):20.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. Ligand-competent fractalkine receptor is expressed on exosomes
    Authors: EJ Park, PK Myint, MG Appiah, P Worawattan, J Inprasit, O Prajuabjin, ZY Soe, A Gaowa, E Kawamoto, M Shimaoka
    Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports, 2021;26(0):100932.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. CX3CR1 Deficiency Attenuates DNFB-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity Through Skewed Polarization Towards M2 Phenotype in Macrophages
    Authors: S Otobe, T Hisamoto, T Miyagaki, S Morimura, H Suga, M Sugaya, S Sato
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020;21(19):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Cell Culture
  4. Repopulating retinal microglia restore endogenous organization and function under CX3CL1-CX3CR1 regulation
    Authors: Y Zhang, L Zhao, X Wang, W Ma, A Lazere, HH Qian, J Zhang, M Abu-Asab, RN Fariss, JE Roger, WT Wong
    Sci Adv, 2018;4(3):eaap8492.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
  5. Prevention of lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm labor by the lack of CX3CL1-CX3CR1 interaction in mice
    Authors: M Mizoguchi, Y Ishida, M Nosaka, A Kimura, Y Kuninaka, T Yahata, S Nanjo, S Toujima, S Minami, K Ino, N Mukaida, T Kondo
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(11):e0207085.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  6. Intramembranous processing by ?-secretase regulates reverse signaling of ephrin-B2 in migration of microglia
    Authors: N Kemmerling, P Wunderlich, S Theil, B Linnartz-G, N Hersch, B Hoffmann, MT Heneka, B de Stroope, H Neumann, J Walter
    Glia, 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  7. Progesterone Attenuates Microglial-Driven Retinal Degeneration and Stimulates Protective Fractalkine-CX3CR1 Signaling
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(11):e0165197.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. CX3CL1 up-regulation is associated with recruitment of CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes and T lymphocytes in the lungs during cigarette smoke-induced emphysema.
    Authors: McComb JG, Ranganathan M, Liu XH, Pilewski JM, Ray P, Watkins SC, Choi AM, Lee JS
    Am. J. Pathol., 2008;173(4):949-61.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  9. Scavenging roles of chemokine receptors: chemokine receptor deficiency is associated with increased levels of ligand in circulation and tissues.
    Authors: Cardona AE, Sasse ME, Liu L, Cardona SM, Mizutani M, Savarin C, Hu T, Ransohoff RM
    Blood, 2008;112(2):256-63.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. Essential involvement of CX3CR1-mediated signals in the bactericidal host defense during septic peritonitis.
    Authors: Ishida Y, Hayashi T, Goto T, Kimura A, Akimoto S, Mukaida N, Kondo T
    J. Immunol., 2008;181(6):4208-18.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  11. Receptor-ligand binding in the cell-substrate contact zone: a quantitative analysis using CX3CR1 and CXCR1 chemokine receptors.
    Authors: Lee FH, Haskell C, Charo IF, Boettiger D
    Biochemistry, 2004;43(22):7179-86.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Binding Assay

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