Recombinant Porcine PD-1 His-tag Protein, CF Summary
Leu25-Gln169, with a C-terminal 6-His tag
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
When Recombinant Porcine B7-H1 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 10397-B7) is immobilized at 1 µg/mL, 100 µL/well, the concentration of Recombinant Porcine PD-1 His-tag (Catalog # 10432-PD) that produces 50% of the optimal binding response is approximately 1-6 µg/mL.
2 μg/lane of Recombinant Porcine PD-1 His-tag Protein (Catalog # 10432-PD) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Blue staining, showing bands at 36-48 kDa.
Programmed Death-1 receptor (PD-1), also known as CD279, is type I transmembrane protein belonging to the CD28 family of immune regulatory receptors (1). Other members of this family include CD28, CTLA-4, ICOS, and BTLA (2-5). The cytoplasmic tail contains two tyrosine residues that form the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) that are important for mediating PD-1 signaling. The extracellular domain (ECD) of porcine PD-1 shares 68% and 60% amino acid sequence identity with the human and rat PD-1, respectively. PD-1 acts as a monomeric receptor and interacts in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio with its ligands PD-L1 (B7-H1) and PD-L2 (B7-DC) (6, 7). PD-1 is expressed on activated T cells, B cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells while PD-L1 expression is constitutive on the same cells and on non-hematopoietic cells such as lung endothelial cells and hepatocytes (8, 9). Ligation of PD-L1 with PD-1 induces co-inhibitory signals on T cells promoting their apoptosis, anergy, and functional exhaustion (10). Thus, the PD-1: PD-L1 interaction is a key regulator of the threshold of immune response and peripheral immune tolerance (11). Blockade of the PD-1: PD-L1 interaction by either antibodies or genetic manipulation accelerates tumor eradication and shows potential for improving cancer immunotherapy (12-14).
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