Catalog Number: 0190
Chemical Name: 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione
Biological Activity
Potent AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist. Also antagonist at glycine modulatory site on NMDA receptor complex. CNQX disodium salt (Cat. No. 1045) also available.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
  • Formula:
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 100 mM in DMSO
  • Purity:
  • Storage:
    Store at RT
  • CAS No:
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Additional Information
Other Product-Specific Information:
Background References
  1. Quinoxalinediones: potent competitive non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists.
    Honore et al.
    Science, 1988;241:701
  2. Antagonism of synaptic potentials in ventral horn neurones by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: a study in the rat spinal cord in vitro.
    King et al.
    Br.J.Pharmacol., 1992;107:375
  3. Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists.
    Watkins et al.
    TiPS, 1990;11:25
  4. Effect of 6-cyano-2,3-dihydroxy-7-nitro-quinoxaline (CNQX) on dorsal root-, NMDA-, kainate and quisqualate-mediated depolarization of rat motoneurones in vitro.
    Long et al.
    Br.J.Pharmacol., 1990;100:850

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for CNQX include:

Showing Results 1 - 10 of 154

  1. A pre-docking source for the power-law behavior of spontaneous quantal release: application to the analysis of LTP.
    Authors: Lamanna Et al.
    Cell Rep
  2. Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat.
    Authors: Gao Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  3. Reduction in focal ictal activity following transplantation of MGE interneurons requires expression of the GABAA receptor α4 subunit.
    Authors: Jaiswal Et al.
    Cell Death Dis
  4. Functional changes in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia.
    Authors: Campbell Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  5. LRP8-Reelin-Regulated Neuronal Enhancer Signature Underlying Learning and Memory Formation.
    Authors: Telese Et al.
  6. Calcium flux-independent NMDA receptor activity is required for Aβ oligomer-induced synaptic loss.
    Authors: Birnbaum Et al.
    PLoS One
  7. Brain ischemia downregulates the neuroprotective GDNF-Ret signaling by a calpain-dependent mechanism in cultured hippocampal neurons.
    Authors: Curcio Et al.
  8. Wnt signalling tunes neurotransmitter release by directly targeting Synaptotagmin-1.
    Authors: Ciani Et al.
    Front Neurol
  9. miR-26a and miR-384-5p are required for LTP maintenance and spine enlargement.
    Authors: Gu Et al.
    Nat Commun
  10. Interactions of Human Autoantibodies with Hippocampal GABAergic Synaptic Transmission - Analyzing Antibody-Induced Effects ex vivo.
    Authors: Haselmann Et al.
    Cell Death Dis
  11. Nitric oxide targets oligodendrocytes and promotes their morphological differentiation.
    Authors: Garthwaite Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  12. GABAergic disinhibition and impaired KCC2 cotransporter activity underlie tumor-associated epilepsy.
    Authors: Campbell Et al.
    Nat Commun
  13. AMPA receptor mediated synaptic excitation drives state-dependent bursting in Purkinje neurons of zebrafish larvae.
    Authors: Sengupta and Thirumalai
    J Neurophysiol
  14. Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the excitatory-inhibitory imbalance during the critical period of postnatal respiratory development in the rat.
    Authors: Gao Et al.
    Physiol Rep
  15. Disruption of Fgf13 causes synaptic excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and genetic epilepsy and febrile seizures plus.
    Authors: Puranam Et al.
    J Neurosci
  16. Developmental changes in synaptic distribution in arcuate nucleus neurons.
    Authors: Baquero Et al.
  17. Cholinergic control of γ power in the midbrain spatial attention network.
    Authors: Bryant Et al.
    J Neurosci
  18. Oligodendrocytes Are Targets of HIV-1 Tat: NMDA and AMPA Receptor-Mediated Effects on Survival and Development.
    Authors: Zou Et al.
    J Neurosci
  19. Selective Effects of PDE10A Inhibitors on Striatopallidal Neurons Require Phosphatase Inhibition by DARPP-32(1,2,3).
    Authors: Polito Et al.
    J Neurosci
  20. TRPC3 channels critically regulate hippocampal excitability and contextual fear memory.
    Authors: Neuner Et al.
    Behav Brain Res
  21. Asynchronous GABA Release Is a Key Determinant of Tonic Inhibition and Controls Neuronal Excitability: A Study in the Synapsin II-/- Mouse.
    Authors: Medrihan Et al.
    Cereb Cortex
  22. β-Arrestin-2 knockout prevents development of cellular μ-opioid receptor tolerance but does not affect opioid-withdrawal-related adaptations in single PAG neurons.
    Authors: Connor Et al.
  23. Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro.
    Authors: Kirwan Et al.
  24. An Amacrine Cell Circuit for Signaling Steady Illumination in the Retina.
    Authors: Jacoby Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol
  25. Chloride Accumulators NKCC1 and AE2 in Mouse GnRH Neurons: Implications for GABAA Mediated Excitation.
    Authors: Taylor-Burds Et al.
    J Clin Invest
  26. G-Protein Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Minimally Regulates Melanopsin Activity in Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells.
    Authors: Sexton and Gelder
    PLoS One
  27. Presynaptic mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity: effects on vesicular release, vesicle clustering and mitochondria number.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    PLoS One
  28. MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism.
    Authors: Bernard and Zhang
    PLoS One
  29. Bursting reverberation as a multiscale neuronal network process driven by synaptic depression-facilitation.
    Authors: Duc Et al.
    J Neurosci
  30. Postsynaptic target specific synaptic dysfunctions in the CA3 area of BACE1 knockout mice.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One
  31. Both neurons and astrocytes exhibited tetrodotoxin-resistant metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent spontaneous slow Ca2+ oscillations in striatum.
    Authors: Tamura Et al.
    PLoS One
  32. The Ca2+ sensor protein swiprosin-1/EFhd2 is present in neurites and involved in kinesin-mediated transport in neurons.
    Authors: Purohit Et al.
    J Biol Chem
  33. Dynamic properties of the alkaline vesicle population at hippocampal synapses.
    Authors: Röther Et al.
    PLoS One
  34. Interleukin-1β causes excitotoxic neurodegeneration and multiple sclerosis disease progression by activating the apoptotic protein p53.
    Authors: Rossi Et al.
    Mol Neurodegener
  35. Lamina-specific contribution of glutamatergic and GABAergic potentials to hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes.
    Authors: Schönberger Et al.
    J Neurosci
  36. Synaptic plasticity in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission following chronic memantine treatment in an in vitro model of limbic epileptogenesis.
    Authors: He and Bausch
  37. Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    Nat Commun
  38. Generation of induced neuronal cells by the single reprogramming factor ASCL1.
    Authors: Chanda Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports
  39. Genetic elimination of GABAergic neurotransmission reveals two distinct pacemakers for spontaneous waves of activity in the developing mouse cortex.
    Authors: Easton Et al.
    J Neurosci
  40. GluA1 phosphorylation contributes to postsynaptic amplification of neuropathic pain in the insular cortex.
    Authors: Qiu Et al.
    J Neurosci
  41. Accumulation of GABAergic neurons, causing a focal ambient GABA gradient, and downregulation of KCC2 are induced during microgyrus formation in a mouse model of polymicrogyria.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    Cereb Cortex
  42. Isoliquiritigenin, a chalcone compound, enhances spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic response.
    Authors: Woo Et al.
    Exp Neurobiol
  43. Distinct temporal expression of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors on cerebellar granule cells in mice.
    Authors: Oostland Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  44. Deranged NMDAergic cortico-subthalamic transmission underlies parkinsonian motor deficits.
    Authors: Pan Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci
  45. GPR35 activation reduces Ca2+ transients and contributes to the kynurenic acid-dependent reduction of synaptic activity at CA3-CA1 synapses.
    Authors: Berlinguer-Palmini Et al.
    PLoS One
  46. Hyperactivity of ON-type retinal ganglion cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
    Authors: Yu Et al.
    PLoS One
  47. Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit.
    Authors: Neuser Et al.
    PLoS One
  48. NMDA-receptor activation but not ion flux is required for amyloid-β induced synaptic depression.
    Authors: Tamburri Et al.
    PLoS One
  49. In vivo optogenetic tracing of functional corticocortical connections between motor forelimb areas.
    Authors: Hira Et al.
    J Neurosci
  50. β-Noradrenergic receptor activation specifically modulates the generation of sighs in vivo and in vitro.
    Authors: Viemari Et al.
    EMBO J
  51. Cortical interneurons that specialize in disinhibitory control.
    Authors: Pi Et al.
  52. Synapsin II desynchronizes neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses by interacting with presynaptic calcium channels.
    Authors: Medrihan Et al.
    Nat Commun
  53. Axonal translation of β-catenin regulates synaptic vesicle dynamics.
    Authors: Taylor Et al.
    J Neurosci
  54. Postnatal loss of P/Q-type channels confined to rhombic-lip-derived neurons alters synaptic transmission at the parallel fiber to purkinje cell synapse and replicates genomic Cacna1a mutation phenotype of ataxia and seizures in mice.
    Authors: Maejima Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  55. An essential role for inhibitor-2 regulation of protein phosphatase-1 in synaptic scaling.
    Authors: Siddoway Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  56. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3β regulate gephyrin postsynaptic aggregation and GABAergic synaptic function in a calpain-dependent mechanism.
    Authors: Tyagarajan Et al.
    J Biol Chem
  57. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation controls cell surface expression of γ-aminobutyric acid, type B receptors.
    Authors: Zemoura Et al.
    J Biol Chem
  58. Long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength in spinothalamic tract neurons of the rat spinal cord.
    Authors: Hur and Park
    Korean J Physiol Pharmacol
  59. Regulation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase by NMDA-receptor-induced seizure activity in cortical slices.
    Authors: Yamagata Et al.
    Brain Res
  60. Independent circuits in the basal ganglia for the evaluation and selection of actions.
    Authors: Stephenson-Jones Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  61. Synaptic and extrasynaptic transmission of kidney-related neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla.
    Authors: Gao and Derbenev
    J Neurophysiol
  62. Neurons generated by direct conversion of fibroblasts reproduce synaptic phenotype caused by autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutation.
    Authors: Chanda Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  63. Synaptic and extrasynaptic plasticity in glutamatergic circuits involving dentate granule cells following chronic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor inhibition.
    Authors: He Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  64. Lovastatin modulates glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway and inhibits mossy fiber sprouting after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Neurochem Int
  65. Activity-induced remodeling of olfactory bulb microcircuits revealed by monosynaptic tracing.
    Authors: Arenkiel Et al.
    PLoS One
  66. Opposing Effects of Intrinsic Conductance and Correlated Synaptic Input on V-Fluctuations during Network Activity.
    Authors: Kolind Et al.
    Front Comput Neurosci
  67. Increased Kv1 channel expression may contribute to decreased sIPSC frequency following chronic inhibition of NR2B-containing NMDAR.
    Authors: He Et al.
  68. Optimization of a GCaMP calcium indicator for neural activity imaging.
    Authors: Akerboom Et al.
    J Neurosci
  69. K+ depolarization evokes ATP, adenosine and glutamate release from glia in rat hippocampus: a microelectrode biosensor study.
    Authors: Heinrich Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol
  70. Altered neurotransmitter release, vesicle recycling and presynaptic structure in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Authors: Upreti Et al.
  71. Functional refinement in the projection from ventral cochlear nucleus to lateral superior olive precedes hearing onset in rat.
    Authors: Case Et al.
    PLoS One
  72. Capsaicin-induced changes in LTP in the lateral amygdala are mediated by TRPV1.
    Authors: Zschenderlein Et al.
    PLoS One
  73. 11-Deoxycortisol impedes GABAergic neurotransmission and induces drug-resistant status epilepticus in mice.
    Authors: Kaminski Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  74. Enhanced Synaptic Activity and Epileptiform Events in the Embryonic KCC2 Deficient Hippocampus.
    Authors: Khalilov Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci
  75. Profound desensitization by ambient GABA limits activation of δ-containing GABAA receptors during spillover.
    Authors: Bright Et al.
    J Neurosci
  76. Homeostatic synaptic plasticity through changes in presynaptic calcium influx.
    Authors: Zhao Et al.
    Hear Res
  77. Delayed postnatal loss of P/Q-type calcium channels recapitulates the absence epilepsy, dyskinesia, and ataxia phenotypes of genomic Cacna1a mutations.
    Authors: Mark Et al.
    J Neurosci
  78. Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice.
    Authors: Parker Et al.
    J Neurosci
  79. Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing.
    Authors: Lazarevic Et al.
    J Neurosci
  80. Positive feedback regulation between γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor signaling and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release in developing neurons.
    Authors: Porcher Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits
  81. Lateral superior olive function in congenital deafness.
    Authors: Couchman Et al.
    J Neurosci
  82. Exposure of neurons to excitotoxic levels of glutamate induces cleavage of the RNA editing enzyme, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2, and loss of GLUR2 editing.
    Authors: Mahajan Et al.
  83. Inflammation alters trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in tonically firing lamina II neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn.
    Authors: Kopach Et al.
  84. Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by interferon-γ-mediated disinhibition.
    Authors: Zhu Et al.
  85. Leptin does not directly affect CNS serotonin neurons to influence appetite.
    Authors: Lam Et al.
    Cell Metab
  86. Expression and functional properties of TRPM2 channels in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra of the rat.
    Authors: Chung Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits
  87. A new mechanism for antiepileptic drug action: vesicular entry may mediate the effects of levetiracetam.
    Authors: Meehan Et al.
    J Biol Chem
  88. CB1 modulation of temporally distinct synaptic facilitation among local circuit interneurons mediated by N-type calcium channels in CA1.
    Authors: Ali
    J Neurophysiol
  89. Systematic heterogeneity of fractional vesicle pool sizes and release rates of hippocampal synapses.
    Authors: Welzel Et al.
    Biophys J
  90. SV2 mediates entry of tetanus neurotoxin into central neurons.
    Authors: Yeh Et al.
    PLoS Pathog
  91. Synapse clusters are preferentially formed by synapses with large recycling pool sizes.
    Authors: Welzel Et al.
    PLoS One
  92. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues modulates the mouse hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via paraventricular glutamatergic neurons.
    Authors: Dimitrov and Usdin
    J Comp Neurol
  93. Substance P modulation of TRPC3/7 channels improves respiratory rhythm regularity and ICAN-dependent pacemaker activity.
    Authors: Ben-Mabrouk and Tryba
    Front Cell Neurosci
  94. Selective T-type calcium channel block in thalamic neurons reveals channel redundancy and physiological impact of I(T)window.
    Authors: Dreyfus Et al.
    J Neurosci
  95. Canonical TGF-beta signaling is required for the balance of excitatory/inhibitory transmission within the hippocampus and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle.
    Authors: Sun Et al.
    J Neurosci
  96. Dopamine-dependent tuning of striatal inhibitory synaptogenesis.
    Authors: Goffin Et al.
    J Neurosci
  97. GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic motoneurons is mediated by a shift in the chloride reversal potential.
    Authors: Gonzalez-Islas Et al.
    J Neurosci
  98. Cannabinoids excite circadian clock neurons.
    Authors: Acuna-Goycolea Et al.
    J Neurosci
  99. Substitution of 5-HT1A receptor signaling by a light-activated G protein-coupled receptor.
    Authors: Oh Et al.
    J Neurosci
  100. Glutamate co-release at GABA/glycinergic synapses is crucial for the refinement of an inhibitory map.
    Authors: Noh Et al.
  101. High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation.
    Authors: Xu Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  102. Na+ mechanism of delta-opioid receptor induced protection from anoxic K+ leakage in the cortex.
    Authors: Chao Et al.
    Cell Mol Life Sci
  103. Mutation of the protein kinase C site in borna disease virus phosphoprotein abrogates viral interference with neuronal signaling and restores normal synaptic activity.
    Authors: Prat Et al.
    J Neurosci
  104. Prediction and validation of a mechanism to control the threshold for inhibitory synaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Kitagawa Et al.
    Mol Syst Biol
  105. Exchange and redistribution dynamics of the cytoskeleton of the active zone molecule bassoon.
    Authors: Tsuriel Et al.
    PLoS One
  106. Novel repression of Kcc2 transcription by REST-RE-1 controls developmental switch in neuronal chloride.
    Authors: Yeo Et al.
    J Neurosci
  107. Dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission: frequency-dependent modulation in the mesoventromedial projection.
    Authors: Chuhma Et al.
  108. Age- and gender-related differences in GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents in GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra reticulata in the rat.
    Authors: Chudomel Et al.
  109. Effects of striatal GABA A-receptor blockade on striatal and cortical activity in monkeys.
    Authors: Darbin and Wichmann
    Nat Neurosci
  110. Coupling of neural activity to blood flow in olfactory glomeruli is mediated by astrocytic pathways.
    Authors: Petzold Et al.
  111. Integrin regulation of cytoplasmic calcium in excitatory neurons depends upon glutamate receptors and release from intracellular stores.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
  112. Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition.
    Authors: Costa Et al.
    J Neurosci
  113. Recruitment of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors during synaptic potentiation is regulated by CaM-kinase I.
    Authors: Guire Et al.
    J Neurosci
  114. Activity-induced synaptic capture and exocytosis of the neuronal serine protease neurotrypsin.
    Authors: Frischknecht Et al.
    J Neurosci
  115. Glutamatergic transmission is sustained at a later period of development of medial nucleus of the trapezoid body-lateral superior olive synapses in circling mice.
    Authors: Hong Et al.
    J Neurosci
  116. Synapsin IIa controls the reserve pool of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles.
    Authors: Gitler Et al.
    J Neurosci
  117. Activity-dependent phosphorylation of Ser187 is required for SNAP-25-negative modulation of neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels.
    Authors: Pozzi Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  118. Muscarinic receptor activation elicits sustained, recurring depolarizations in reticulospinal neurons.
    Authors: Smetana Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  119. Neuregulin-1 enhances depolarization-induced GABA release.
    Authors: Woo Et al.
  120. AMPAR exocytosis through NO modulation of PICK1.
    Authors: Sossa Et al.
  121. Calpain-mediated mGluR1alpha truncation: a key step in excitotoxicity.
    Authors: Xu Et al.
  122. N-arachidonoyl-dopamine tunes synaptic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons by activating both cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors.
    Authors: Marinelli Et al.
  123. Lack of synapsin I reduces the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at central inhibitory synapses.
    Authors: Baldelli Et al.
    J Neurosci
  124. Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in retinal ganglion cells.
    Authors: Xia Et al.
    J Neurosci
  125. Amyloid precursor protein overexpression depresses excitatory transmission through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms.
    Authors: Ting Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  126. Properties of GluR3 receptors tagged with GFP at the amino or carboxyl terminus.
    Authors: Limon Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits
  127. Chronic ethanol exposure and protracted abstinence alter NMDA receptors in central amygdala.
    Authors: Roberto Et al.
  128. Ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonism attenuates cue-induced cocaine seeking.
    Authors: Bäckström and Hyytiä
  129. Glutamatergic Control of Microvascular Tone by Distinct GABA Neurons in the Cerebellum.
    Authors: Rancillac Et al.
    J Neurosci
  130. Direct GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition of the substantia gelatinosa from the rostral ventromedial medulla revealed by in vivo patch-clamp analysis in rats.
    Authors: Kato Et al.
    J Neurosci
  131. Differential reelin-induced enhancement of NMDA and AMPA receptor activity in the adult hippocampus.
    Authors: Qiu Et al.
    J Neurosci
  132. NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation modulates fear learning as well as amygdaloid synaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Nakazawa Et al.
    Biophys J
  133. NMDA receptor mediates tau-induced neurotoxicity by calpain and ERK/MAPK activation.
    Authors: Amadoro Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  134. GAT-3 transporters regulate inhibition in the neocortex.
    Authors: Kinney
    Mol Cell Neurosci
  135. Corticosterone slowly enhances miniature excitatory postsynaptic current amplitude in mice CA1 hippocampal cells.
    Authors: Karst and Joels
    J Neurosci
  136. Strong effects of subphysiological temperature on the function and plasticity of mammalian presynaptic terminals.
    Authors: Micheva and Smith
    J Neurophysiol
  137. Reelin, very-low-density lipoprotein receptor, and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 control somatic NMDA receptor composition during hippocampal maturation in vitro.
    Authors: Sinagra Et al.
    PLoS One
  138. Propofol suppresses synaptic responsiveness of somatosensory relay neurons to excitatory input by potentiating GABA(A) receptor chloride channels.
    Authors: Ying and Goldstein
    Mol Pain
  139. Properties of external plexiform layer interneurons in mouse olfactory bulb slices.
    Authors: Hamilton Et al.
  140. Opioid-like actions of neuropeptide Y in rat substantia gelatinosa: Y1 suppression of inhibition and Y2 suppression of excitation.
    Authors: Moran Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  141. Electrophysiological, pharmacological, and molecular evidence for alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat midbrain dopamine neurons.
    Authors: Wu Et al.
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther
  142. Tonotopic gradients of membrane and synaptic properties for neurons of the chicken nucleus magnocellularis.
    Authors: Fukui and Ohmori
    PLoS One
  143. Metabotropic regulation of intrinsic excitability by synaptic activation of kainate receptors.
    Authors: Melyan Et al.
    J Neurosci
  144. Astrocyte-mediated activation of neuronal kainate receptors.
    Authors: Liu Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  145. Distinct roles of P2X receptors in modulating glutamate release at different primary sensory synapses in rat spinal cord.
    Authors: Nakatsuka Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  146. Direct interaction and functional coupling between metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 and voltage-sensitive Cav2.1 Ca2+ channel.
    Authors: Kitano Et al.
    J Biol Chem
  147. Separable features of visual cortical plasticity revealed by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A signaling.
    Authors: Fagiolini Et al.
    J Neurophysiol
  148. A novel positive allosteric modulator of the GABA(A) receptor: the action of (+)-ROD188.
    Authors: Thomet Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol
  149. Developmental regulation of spine motility in the mammalian central nervous system.
    Authors: Dunaevsky Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  150. Mice deficient for prion protein exhibit normal neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.
    Authors: Lledo Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  151. Refinement of odor molecule tuning by dendrodendritic synaptic inhibition in the olfactory bulb.
    Authors: Yokoi Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  152. Concentration-jump analysis of voltage-dependent conductances activated by glutamate and kainate in neurons of the avian cochlear nucleus.
    Authors: Raman and Trussell
    PLoS Pathog
  153. Calcium transients in dendrites of neocortical neurons evoked by single subthreshold excitatory postsynaptic potentials via low-voltage-activated calcium channels.
    Authors: Markram and Sakmann
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
  154. Feeding induced by cannabinoids is mediated independently of the melanocortin system.
    Authors: Sinnayah Et al.
    PLoS One
Expand to show all
Tocris Small Molecules
Description Application Cat# Citations Images  

CNQX disodium salt

1045 10  
View Sizes & Prices
Catalog# Size Price Stock Quantity
Loading Information....


0373 141  
View Sizes & Prices
Catalog# Size Price Stock Quantity
Loading Information....
Tocris Bioscience is the leading supplier of novel and exclusive tools for life science research with over 30 years' experience in the industry. Tocris is a Bio-Techne brand.

Order Details


Contact Information

Molarity Calculator
Calculate the mass, volume or concentration required for a solution

The molarity calculator is based on the following equation:

Mass (g) = Concentration (mol/L) x Volume (L) x Molecular Weight (g/mol)
An example of a molarity calculation using the molarity calculator:
What is the mass of compound required to make a 10 mM stock solution in 10 ml of water given that the molecular weight of the compound is 197.13 g/mol?

R&D Systems Guarantee

or select another batch:


Customer Information