CNQX

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
0190/10
0190/50
CNQX | CAS No. 115066-14-3 | AMPA Receptor Antagonists
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Description: Potent and selective non-NMDA iGluR antagonist

Chemical Name: 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione

Purity: ≥99%

Product Details
Citations (213)
Supplemental Products
Reviews (1)

Biological Activity

Potent AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist. Also antagonist at glycine modulatory site on NMDA receptor complex.

Disodium Salt Available also available.

Technical Data

M.Wt:
232.16
Formula:
C9H4N4O4
Solubility:
Soluble to 100 mM in DMSO
Purity:
≥99%
Storage:
Store at RT
CAS No:
115066-14-3

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Additional Information

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Citations for CNQX

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for CNQX include:

213 Citations: Showing 1 - 10

  1. Feeding induced by cannabinoids is mediated independently of the melanocortin system.
    Authors: Sinnayah Et al.
    PLoS One  ;3:e2202
  2. Differences in glutamate uptake between cortical regions impact neuronal NMDA receptor activation.
    Authors: Romanos Et al.
    Commun Biol  2019;2:127
  3. Pharmacological Dissection of Intrinsic Optical Signal Reveals a Functional Coupling between Synaptic Activity and Astrocytic Volume Transient.
    Authors: Woo Et al.
    Exp Neurobiol  2019;28:30
  4. Transient, Consequential Increases in Extracellular Potassium Ions Accompany Channelrhodopsin2 Excitation.
    Authors: Octeau Et al.
    Cell Rep  2019;27:2249
  5. KA metabolite (2R,6R)-hydroxynorKA enhances aggression via periaqueductal gray glutamatergic transmission.
    Authors: Yu Et al.
    Neuropharmacology  2019;157
  6. Prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure induces working memory and social recognition deficits by disrupting inhibitory synaptic networks in male mice.
    Authors: Yu Et al.
    Mol Brain  2019;12:29
  7. DA neuron glutamate cotransmission evokes a delayed excitation in lateral dorsal striatal cholinergic interneurons.
    Authors: Chuhma Et al.
    Elife  2018;7
  8. The Mouse Pulvinar Nucleus Links the Lateral Extrastriate Cortex, Striatum, and Amygdala.
    Authors: Zhou Et al.
    J Neurosci  2018;38:347
  9. All-optical synaptic electrophysiology probes mechanism of ketamine-induced disinhibition.
    Authors: Fan Et al.
    Nat Methods  2018;15:823
  10. (2R,6R)-hydroxynorKA rescues chronic stress-induced depression-like behavior through its actions in the midbrain periaqueductal gray.
    Authors: Chou Et al.
    Neuropharmacology  2018;139:1
  11. Proximodistal Heterogeneity of Hippocampal CA3 Pyramidal Neuron Intrinsic Properties, Connectivity, and Reactivation during Memory Recall.
    Authors: Sun Et al.
    Neuron  2017;95:656
  12. IGF1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity of Mitral Cells in Olfactory Memory during Social Learning.
    Authors: Liu Et al.
    Neuron  2017;95:106
  13. Excitotoxic inactivation of constitutive oxidative stress detoxification pathway in neurons can be rescued by PKD1.
    Authors: Pose-Utrilla Et al.
    Nat Commun  2017;8:2275
  14. Impairments of spatial memory in an Alzheimer's disease model via degeneration of hippocampal cholinergic synapses.
    Authors: Zhu Et al.
    Nat Commun  2017;8:1676
  15. Differential processing of thalamic information via distinct striatal interneuron circuits.
    Authors: Assous
    Nat Commun  2017;8:15860
  16. Amygdalar endothelin-1 regulates pyramidal neuron excitability and affects anxiety.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    Sci Rep  2017;7:2316
  17. A novel crosstalk within the endocannabinoid system controls GABA transmission in the striatum.
    Authors: Musella
    Sci Rep  2017;7(1):7363
  18. The RNA-Binding Protein hnRNP K Mediates the Effect of BDNF on Dendritic mRNA Metabolism and Regulates Synaptic NMDA Receptors in Hippocampal Neurons.
    Authors: Leal Et al.
    Eneuro  2017;4
  19. Astrocytes modulate thalamic sensory processing via mGlu2 receptor activation.
    Authors: Copeland Et al.
    Neuropharmacology  2017;121:100
  20. Increased GABAB receptor signaling in a rat model for schizophrenia
    Authors: Selten Et al.
    Scientific Reports  2016;6:34240
  21. A cholinergic basal forebrain feeding circuit modulates appetite suppression
    Authors: Herman Et al.
    Nature  2016;538:253
  22. A pre-docking source for the power-law behavior of spontaneous quantal release: application to the analysis of LTP.
    Authors: Lamanna Et al.
    Cell Rep  2015;9:44
  23. Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following PilC-induced status epilepticus in the rat.
    Authors: Gao Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;9:384
  24. Reduction in focal ictal activity following transplantation of MGE interneurons requires expression of the GABAA receptor α4 subunit.
    Authors: Jaiswal Et al.
    Cell Death Dis  2015;9:127
  25. Functional changes in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia.
    Authors: Campbell Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;8:425
  26. LRP8-Reelin-Regulated Neuronal Enhancer Signature Underlying Learning and Memory Formation.
    Authors: Telese Et al.
    Neuron  2015;86:696
  27. Calcium flux-independent NMDA receptor activity is required for Aβ oligomer-induced synaptic loss.
    Authors: Birnbaum Et al.
    PLoS One  2015;6:e1791
  28. Brain ischemia downregulates the neuroprotective GDNF-Ret signaling by a calpain-dependent mechanism in cultured hippocampal neurons.
    Authors: Curcio Et al.
    Eneuro  2015;6:e1645
  29. Wnt signalling tunes neurotransmitter release by directly targeting Synaptotagmin-1.
    Authors: Ciani Et al.
    Front Neurol  2015;6:8302
  30. miR-26a and miR-384-5p are required for LTP maintenance and spine enlargement.
    Authors: Gu Et al.
    Nat Commun  2015;6:6789
  31. Interactions of Human Autoantibodies with Hippocampal GABAergic Synaptic Transmission - Analyzing Antibody-Induced Effects ex vivo.
    Authors: Haselmann Et al.
    Cell Death Dis  2015;6:136
  32. Nitric oxide targets oligodendrocytes and promotes their morphological differentiation.
    Authors: Garthwaite Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2015;63:383
  33. GABAergic disinhibition and impaired KCC2 cotransporter activity underlie tumor-associated epilepsy.
    Authors: Campbell Et al.
    Nat Commun  2015;63:23
  34. AMPA receptor mediated synaptic excitation drives state-dependent bursting in Purkinje neurons of zebrafish larvae.
    Authors: Sengupta and Thirumalai
    J Neurophysiol  2015;4
  35. Disruption of Fgf13 causes synaptic excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and genetic epilepsy and febrile seizures plus.
    Authors: Puranam Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;35:8866
  36. Developmental changes in synaptic distribution in arcuate nucleus neurons.
    Authors: Baquero Et al.
    Glia  2015;35:8558
  37. Cholinergic control of γ power in the midbrain spatial attention network.
    Authors: Bryant Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;35:761
  38. Oligodendrocytes Are Targets of HIV-1 Tat: NMDA and AMPA Receptor-Mediated Effects on Survival and Development.
    Authors: Zou Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;35:11384
  39. Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the excitatory-inhibitory imbalance during the critical period of postnatal respiratory development in the rat.
    Authors: Gao Et al.
    Physiol Rep  2015;3
  40. TRPC3 channels critically regulate hippocampal excitability and contextual fear memory.
    Authors: Neuner Et al.
    Behav Brain Res  2015;281:69
  41. Asynchronous GABA Release Is a Key Determinant of Tonic Inhibition and Controls Neuronal Excitability: A Study in the Synapsin II-/- Mouse.
    Authors: Medrihan Et al.
    Cereb Cortex  2015;25:3356
  42. Selective Effects of PDE10A Inhibitors on Striatopallidal Neurons Require Phosphatase Inhibition by DARPP-32(1,2,3).
    Authors: Polito Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;2
  43. β-Arrestin-2 knockout prevents development of cellular μ-opioid receptor tolerance but does not affect opioid-withdrawal-related adaptations in single PAG neurons.
    Authors: Connor Et al.
    Elife  2015;172:492
  44. Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro.
    Authors: Kirwan Et al.
    Development  2015;142:3178
  45. An Amacrine Cell Circuit for Signaling Steady Illumination in the Retina.
    Authors: Jacoby Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol  2015;13:2663
  46. Chloride Accumulators NKCC1 and AE2 in Mouse GnRH Neurons: Implications for GABAA Mediated Excitation.
    Authors: Taylor-Burds Et al.
    J Clin Invest  2015;10:e0131076
  47. G-Protein Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Minimally Regulates Melanopsin Activity in Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells.
    Authors: Sexton and Gelder
    PLoS One  2015;10:e0128690
  48. Presynaptic mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity: effects on vesicular release, vesicle clustering and mitochondria number.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    PLoS One  2015;10:e0127461
  49. MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism.
    Authors: Bernard and Zhang
    PLoS One  2015;10:e0124816
  50. Bursting reverberation as a multiscale neuronal network process driven by synaptic depression-facilitation.
    Authors: Duc Et al.
    J Neurosci  2015;10:e0124694
  51. Postsynaptic target specific synaptic dysfunctions in the CA3 area of BACE1 knockout mice.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One  2014;9:e92279
  52. Both neurons and astrocytes exhibited tetrodotoxin-resistant metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent spontaneous slow Ca2+ oscillations in striatum.
    Authors: Tamura Et al.
    PLoS One  2014;9:e85351
  53. The Ca2+ sensor protein swiprosin-1/EFhd2 is present in neurites and involved in kinesin-mediated transport in neurons.
    Authors: Purohit Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2014;9:e103976
  54. Dynamic properties of the alkaline vesicle population at hippocampal synapses.
    Authors: Röther Et al.
    PLoS One  2014;9:e102723
  55. Interleukin-1β causes excitotoxic neurodegeneration and multiple sclerosis disease progression by activating the apoptotic protein p53.
    Authors: Rossi Et al.
    Mol Neurodegener  2014;9:56
  56. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus) ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs.
    Authors: Lado Et al.
    Front Neurosci  2014;8:185
  57. Lamina-specific contribution of glutamatergic and GABAergic potentials to hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes.
    Authors: Schönberger Et al.
    J Neurosci  2014;8:103
  58. Synaptic plasticity in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission following chronic Mem. treatment in an in vitro model of limbic epileptogenesis.
    Authors: He and Bausch
    Neuropharmacology  2014;77:379
  59. Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    Nat Commun  2014;5:3284
  60. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate the strength of inhibitory GABA-mediated synaptic transmission.
    Authors: Accardi Et al.
    Nat Commun  2014;5:3168
  61. Generation of induced neuronal cells by the single reprogramming factor ASCL1.
    Authors: Chanda Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports  2014;3:282
  62. Genetic elimination of GABAergic neurotransmission reveals two distinct pacemakers for spontaneous waves of activity in the developing mouse cortex.
    Authors: Easton Et al.
    J Neurosci  2014;34:3854
  63. GluA1 phosphorylation contributes to postsynaptic amplification of neuropathic pain in the insular cortex.
    Authors: Qiu Et al.
    J Neurosci  2014;34:13505
  64. Accumulation of GABAergic neurons, causing a focal ambient GABA gradient, and downregulation of KCC2 are induced during microgyrus formation in a mouse model of polymicrogyria.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    Cereb Cortex  2014;24:1088
  65. Isoliquiritigenin, a chalcone compound, enhances spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic response.
    Authors: Woo Et al.
    Exp Neurobiol  2014;23:163
  66. Distinct temporal expression of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors on cerebellar granule cells in mice.
    Authors: Oostland Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2014;13:491
  67. Deranged NMDAergic cortico-subthalamic transmission underlies parkinsonian motor deficits.
    Authors: Pan Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci  2014;124:4629
  68. Synthesis, transport, and metabolism of serotonin formed from exogenously applied 5-HTP after spinal cord injury in rats.
    Authors: Li Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2014;111:145
  69. GPR35 activation reduces Ca2+ transients and contributes to the kynurenic acid-dependent reduction of synaptic activity at CA3-CA1 synapses.
    Authors: Berlinguer-Palmini Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;8:e82180
  70. Hyperactivity of ON-type retinal ganglion cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
    Authors: Yu Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;8:e76049
  71. Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit.
    Authors: Neuser Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;8:e66497
  72. NMDA-receptor activation but not ion flux is required for amyloid-β induced synaptic depression.
    Authors: Tamburri Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;8:e65350
  73. Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors potentiates heteromeric kainate receptors.
    Authors: Rojas Et al.
    Mol Pharmacol  2013;83:106
  74. In vivo optogenetic tracing of functional corticocortical connections between motor forelimb areas.
    Authors: Hira Et al.
    J Neurosci  2013;7:55
  75. β-Noradrenergic receptor activation specifically modulates the generation of sighs in vivo and in vitro.
    Authors: Viemari Et al.
    EMBO J  2013;7:179
  76. Cortical interneurons that specialize in disinhibitory control.
    Authors: Pi Et al.
    Nature  2013;503:521
  77. Synapsin II desynchronizes neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses by interacting with presynaptic calcium channels.
    Authors: Medrihan Et al.
    Nat Commun  2013;4:1512
  78. Axonal translation of β-catenin regulates synaptic vesicle dynamics.
    Authors: Taylor Et al.
    J Neurosci  2013;33:5584
  79. Postnatal loss of P/Q-type channels confined to rhombic-lip-derived neurons alters synaptic transmission at the parallel fiber to purkinje cell synapse and replicates genomic Cacna1a mutation phenotype of ataxia and seizures in mice.
    Authors: Maejima Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2013;33:5162
  80. Ovarian hormone loss impairs excitatory synaptic transmission at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses.
    Authors: Wu Et al.
    J Neurosci  2013;33:16158
  81. An essential role for inhibitor-2 regulation of protein phosphatase-1 in synaptic scaling.
    Authors: Siddoway Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2013;33:11206
  82. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3β regulate gephyrin postsynaptic aggregation and GABAergic synaptic function in a calpain-dependent mechanism.
    Authors: Tyagarajan Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2013;288:9634
  83. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation controls cell surface expression of γ-aminobutyric acid, type B receptors.
    Authors: Zemoura Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2013;288:34897
  84. Long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength in spinothalamic tract neurons of the rat spinal cord.
    Authors: Hur and Park
    Korean J Physiol Pharmacol  2013;17:553
  85. Regulation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase by NMDA-receptor-induced seizure activity in cortical slices.
    Authors: Yamagata Et al.
    Brain Res  2013;1507:1
  86. Independent circuits in the basal ganglia for the evaluation and selection of actions.
    Authors: Stephenson-Jones Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2013;110:E3670
  87. Synaptic and extrasynaptic transmission of kidney-related neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla.
    Authors: Gao and Derbenev
    J Neurophysiol  2013;110:2637
  88. Neurons generated by direct conversion of fibroblasts reproduce synaptic phenotype caused by autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutation.
    Authors: Chanda Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2013;110:16622
  89. Synaptic and extrasynaptic plasticity in glutamatergic circuits involving dentate granule cells following chronic N-MthD.-aspartate receptor inhibition.
    Authors: He Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2013;109:1535
  90. Lovastatin modulates glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway and inhibits mossy fiber sprouting after PilC-induced status epilepticus.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Neurochem Int  2012;7:e38789
  91. Differences in spontaneously avoiding or approaching mice reflect differences in CB1-mediated signaling of dorsal striatal transmission.
    Authors: Laricchiuta Et al.
    PLoS One  2012;7:e33260
  92. Activity-induced remodeling of olfactory bulb microcircuits revealed by monosynaptic tracing.
    Authors: Arenkiel Et al.
    PLoS One  2012;6:e29423
  93. Opposing Effects of Intrinsic Conductance and Correlated Synaptic Input on V-Fluctuations during Network Activity.
    Authors: Kolind Et al.
    Front Comput Neurosci  2012;6:40
  94. Increased Kv1 channel expression may contribute to decreased sIPSC frequency following chronic inhibition of NR2B-containing NMDAR.
    Authors: He Et al.
    Neuropsychopharmacology  2012;37:1338
  95. The role of inhibition in oscillatory wave dynamics in the cortex.
    Authors: Xiao Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci  2012;36:2201
  96. Calcium-dependent but action potential-independent BCM-like metaplasticity in the hippocampus.
    Authors: Hulme Et al.
    J Neurosci  2012;32:6785
  97. Interleukin-1β causes anxiety by interacting with the endocannabinoid system.
    Authors: Rossi Et al.
    J Neurosci  2012;32:13896
  98. Optimization of a GCaMP calcium indicator for neural activity imaging.
    Authors: Akerboom Et al.
    J Neurosci  2012;32:13819
  99. K+ depolarization evokes ATP, adenosine and glutamate release from glia in rat hippocampus: a microelectrode biosensor study.
    Authors: Heinrich Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol  2012;167:1003
  100. Altered neurotransmitter release, vesicle recycling and presynaptic structure in the PilC model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Authors: Upreti Et al.
    Brain  2012;135:869
  101. Critical role of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors in cortical spreading depression.
    Authors: Tozzi Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2012;109:18985
  102. Specificity and actions of an arylaspartate inhibitor of glutamate transport at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal cell synapse.
    Authors: Sun Et al.
    PLoS One  2011;6:e23765
  103. Functional refinement in the projection from ventral cochlear nucleus to lateral superior olive precedes hearing onset in rat.
    Authors: Case Et al.
    PLoS One  2011;6:e20756
  104. Capsaicin-induced changes in LTP in the lateral amygdala are mediated by TRPV1.
    Authors: Zschenderlein Et al.
    PLoS One  2011;6:e16116
  105. 11-Deoxycortisol impedes GABAergic neurotransmission and induces drug-resistant status epilepticus in mice.
    Authors: Kaminski Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2011;60:1098
  106. Enhanced Synaptic Activity and Epileptiform Events in the Embryonic KCC2 Deficient Hippocampus.
    Authors: Khalilov Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci  2011;5:23
  107. Concurrent imaging of synaptic vesicle recycling and calcium dynamics.
    Authors: Li Et al.
    Front Mol Neurosci  2011;4:34
  108. Activation of alpha-2 noradrenergic receptors is critical for the generation of fictive eupnea and fictive gasping inspiratory activities in mammals in vitro.
    Authors: Viemari Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci  2011;33:2228
  109. Profound desensitization by ambient GABA limits activation of δ-containing GABAA receptors during spillover.
    Authors: Bright Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:753
  110. Homeostatic synaptic plasticity through changes in presynaptic calcium influx.
    Authors: Zhao Et al.
    Hear Res  2011;31:7492
  111. Delayed postnatal loss of P/Q-type calcium channels recapitulates the absence epilepsy, dyskinesia, and ataxia phenotypes of genomic Cacna1a mutations.
    Authors: Mark Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:4311
  112. Ovarian hormone deficiency reduces intrinsic excitability and abolishes acute estrogen sensitivity in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.
    Authors: Wu Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:2638
  113. Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in DA neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice.
    Authors: Parker Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:17103
  114. Endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the nucleus tractus solitarius tonically regulates synaptic and autonomic function.
    Authors: Clark Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:12318
  115. NMDA receptors in retrosplenial cortex are necessary for retrieval of recent and remote context fear memory.
    Authors: Corcoran Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:11655
  116. Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing.
    Authors: Lazarevic Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;31:10189
  117. Positive feedback regulation between γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor signaling and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release in developing neurons.
    Authors: Porcher Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits  2011;286:21667
  118. Lateral superior olive function in congenital deafness.
    Authors: Couchman Et al.
    J Neurosci  2011;277:163
  119. Exposure of neurons to excitotoxic levels of glutamate induces cleavage of the RNA editing enzyme, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2, and loss of GLUR2 editing.
    Authors: Mahajan Et al.
    Neuroscience  2011;189:305
  120. Inflammation alters trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in tonically firing lamina II neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn.
    Authors: Kopach Et al.
    Pain  2011;152:912
  121. Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by IF.-γ-mediated disinhibition.
    Authors: Zhu Et al.
    Cell  2011;147:1384
  122. Leptin does not directly affect CNS serotonin neurons to influence appetite.
    Authors: Lam Et al.
    Cell Metab  2011;13:584
  123. Expression and functional properties of TRPM2 channels in DArgic neurons of the substantia nigra of the rat.
    Authors: Chung Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits  2011;106:2865
  124. A new mechanism for antiepileptic drug action: vesicular entry may mediate the effects of LeveT.
    Authors: Meehan Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2011;106:1227
  125. Network hyperexcitability in hippocampal slices from Mecp2 mutant mice revealed by voltage-sensitive dye imaging.
    Authors: Calfa Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2011;105:1768
  126. CB1 modulation of temporally distinct synaptic facilitation among local circuit interneurons mediated by N-type calcium channels in CA1.
    Authors: Ali
    J Neurophysiol  2011;105:1051
  127. Systematic heterogeneity of fractional vesicle pool sizes and release rates of hippocampal synapses.
    Authors: Welzel Et al.
    Biophys J  2011;100:593
  128. SV2 mediates entry of tetanus neurotoxin into central neurons.
    Authors: Yeh Et al.
    PLoS Pathog  2010;6:e1001207
  129. Synapse clusters are preferentially formed by synapses with large recycling pool sizes.
    Authors: Welzel Et al.
    PLoS One  2010;5:e13514
  130. Melatonin potentiates glycine currents through a PLC/PKC signalling pathway in rat retinal ganglion cells.
    Authors: Zhao Et al.
    J Physiol  2010;588:2605
  131. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues modulates the mouse hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via paraventricular glutamatergic neurons.
    Authors: Dimitrov and Usdin
    J Comp Neurol  2010;518:4375
  132. Substance P modulation of TRPC3/7 channels improves respiratory rhythm regularity and ICAN-dependent pacemaker activity.
    Authors: Ben-Mabrouk and Tryba
    Front Cell Neurosci  2010;31:1219
  133. Selective T-type calcium channel block in thalamic neurons reveals channel redundancy and physiological impact of I(T)window.
    Authors: Dreyfus Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;30:99
  134. Canonical TGF-beta signaling is required for the balance of excitatory/inhibitory transmission within the hippocampus and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle.
    Authors: Sun Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;30:6025
  135. DA-dependent tuning of striatal inhibitory synaptogenesis.
    Authors: Goffin Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;30:2935
  136. Haploinsufficiency in peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase leads to altered synaptic transmission in the amygdala and impaired emotional responses.
    Authors: Gaier Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;30:13656
  137. GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic motoneurons is mediated by a shift in the chloride reversal potential.
    Authors: Gonzalez-Islas Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;30:13016
  138. Cannabinoids excite circadian clock neurons.
    Authors: Acuna-Goycolea Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;30:10061
  139. Reduction in synaptic GABA release contributes to target-selective elevation of PVN neuronal activity in rats with myocardial infarction.
    Authors: Han Et al.
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol  2010;299:R129
  140. Substitution of 5-HT1A receptor signaling by a light-activated G protein-coupled receptor.
    Authors: Oh Et al.
    J Neurosci  2010;285:30825
  141. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors induces a nitric oxide-dependent long-term depression in rat medial prefrontal cortex.
    Authors: Huang and Hsu
    Cereb Cortex  2010;20:982
  142. Sustained dorsal hippocampal activity is not obligatory for either the maintenance or retrieval of long-term spatial memory.
    Authors: Broadbent Et al.
    Hippocampus  2010;20:1366
  143. Glutamate co-release at GABA/glycinergic synapses is crucial for the refinement of an inhibitory map.
    Authors: Noh Et al.
    Neuropharmacology  2010;13:232
  144. High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation.
    Authors: Xu Et al.
    J Neurophysiol  2010;103:2301
  145. Na+ mechanism of delta-opioid receptor induced protection from anoxic K+ leakage in the cortex.
    Authors: Chao Et al.
    Cell Mol Life Sci  2009;66:1105
  146. Mutation of the protein kinase C site in borna disease virus phosphoprotein abrogates viral interference with neuronal signaling and restores normal synaptic activity.
    Authors: Prat Et al.
    J Neurosci  2009;5:e1000425
  147. Prediction and validation of a mechanism to control the threshold for inhibitory synaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Kitagawa Et al.
    Mol Syst Biol  2009;5:280
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CNQX impact on field potentials PPR
By Anonymous on 06/07/2019
Application: Species: Rat

CNQX was used to study input of non-NMDA glutamate receptors into short-term plasticity in anterior cingulate cortex. Being applied in 5 microM concentration, CNQX reduced significantly both amplitudes of field potentials and their paired-pulse ratio.


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