Catalog Number: 0190
Chemical Name: 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione
Biological Activity

Potent AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist. Also antagonist at glycine modulatory site on NMDA receptor complex.

Disodium Salt Available also available.
Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
    232.16
  • Formula:
    C9H4N4O4
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 100 mM in DMSO
  • Purity:
    >99%
  • Storage:
    Store at RT
  • CAS No:
    115066-14-3
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Additional Information
Other Product-Specific Information:
Background References
  1. Quinoxalinediones: potent competitive non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists.
    Honore et al.
    Science, 1988;241:701
  2. Antagonism of synaptic potentials in ventral horn neurones by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: a study in the rat spinal cord in vitro.
    King et al.
    Br.J.Pharmacol., 1992;107:375
  3. Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists.
    Watkins et al.
    TiPS, 1990;11:25
  4. Effect of 6-cyano-2,3-dihydroxy-7-nitro-quinoxaline (CNQX) on dorsal root-, NMDA-, kainate and quisqualate-mediated depolarization of rat motoneurones in vitro.
    Long et al.
    Br.J.Pharmacol., 1990;100:850
Citations:

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for CNQX include:

157 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Feeding induced by cannabinoids is mediated independently of the melanocortin system.
    Authors: Sinnayah Et al.
    PLoS One ;3:e2202
  2. Differential processing of thalamic information via distinct striatal interneuron circuits.
    Authors: Assous
    Nat Commun 2017;8:15860
  3. Increased GABAB receptor signaling in a rat model for schizophrenia
    Authors: Selten Et al.
    Scientific Reports 2016;6:34240
  4. A cholinergic basal forebrain feeding circuit modulates appetite suppression
    Authors: Herman Et al.
    Nature 2016;538:253
  5. A pre-docking source for the power-law behavior of spontaneous quantal release: application to the analysis of LTP.
    Authors: Lamanna Et al.
    Cell Rep 2015;9:44
  6. Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat.
    Authors: Gao Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2015;9:384
  7. Reduction in focal ictal activity following transplantation of MGE interneurons requires expression of the GABAA receptor α4 subunit.
    Authors: Jaiswal Et al.
    Cell Death Dis 2015;9:127
  8. Functional changes in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia.
    Authors: Campbell Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2015;8:425
  9. LRP8-Reelin-Regulated Neuronal Enhancer Signature Underlying Learning and Memory Formation.
    Authors: Telese Et al.
    Neuron 2015;86:696
  10. Calcium flux-independent NMDA receptor activity is required for Aβ oligomer-induced synaptic loss.
    Authors: Birnbaum Et al.
    PLoS One 2015;6:e1791
  11. Brain ischemia downregulates the neuroprotective GDNF-Ret signaling by a calpain-dependent mechanism in cultured hippocampal neurons.
    Authors: Curcio Et al.
    Eneuro 2015;6:e1645
  12. Wnt signalling tunes neurotransmitter release by directly targeting Synaptotagmin-1.
    Authors: Ciani Et al.
    Front Neurol 2015;6:8302
  13. miR-26a and miR-384-5p are required for LTP maintenance and spine enlargement.
    Authors: Gu Et al.
    Nat Commun 2015;6:6789
  14. Interactions of Human Autoantibodies with Hippocampal GABAergic Synaptic Transmission - Analyzing Antibody-Induced Effects ex vivo.
    Authors: Haselmann Et al.
    Cell Death Dis 2015;6:136
  15. Nitric oxide targets oligodendrocytes and promotes their morphological differentiation.
    Authors: Garthwaite Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2015;63:383
  16. GABAergic disinhibition and impaired KCC2 cotransporter activity underlie tumor-associated epilepsy.
    Authors: Campbell Et al.
    Nat Commun 2015;63:23
  17. AMPA receptor mediated synaptic excitation drives state-dependent bursting in Purkinje neurons of zebrafish larvae.
    Authors: Sengupta and Thirumalai
    J Neurophysiol 2015;4
  18. Disruption of Fgf13 causes synaptic excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and genetic epilepsy and febrile seizures plus.
    Authors: Puranam Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;35:8866
  19. Developmental changes in synaptic distribution in arcuate nucleus neurons.
    Authors: Baquero Et al.
    Glia 2015;35:8558
  20. Cholinergic control of γ power in the midbrain spatial attention network.
    Authors: Bryant Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;35:761
  21. Oligodendrocytes Are Targets of HIV-1 Tat: NMDA and AMPA Receptor-Mediated Effects on Survival and Development.
    Authors: Zou Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;35:11384
  22. Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the excitatory-inhibitory imbalance during the critical period of postnatal respiratory development in the rat.
    Authors: Gao Et al.
    Physiol Rep 2015;3
  23. TRPC3 channels critically regulate hippocampal excitability and contextual fear memory.
    Authors: Neuner Et al.
    Behav Brain Res 2015;281:69
  24. Asynchronous GABA Release Is a Key Determinant of Tonic Inhibition and Controls Neuronal Excitability: A Study in the Synapsin II-/- Mouse.
    Authors: Medrihan Et al.
    Cereb Cortex 2015;25:3356
  25. Selective Effects of PDE10A Inhibitors on Striatopallidal Neurons Require Phosphatase Inhibition by DARPP-32(1,2,3).
    Authors: Polito Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;2
  26. β-Arrestin-2 knockout prevents development of cellular μ-opioid receptor tolerance but does not affect opioid-withdrawal-related adaptations in single PAG neurons.
    Authors: Connor Et al.
    Elife 2015;172:492
  27. Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro.
    Authors: Kirwan Et al.
    Development 2015;142:3178
  28. An Amacrine Cell Circuit for Signaling Steady Illumination in the Retina.
    Authors: Jacoby Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol 2015;13:2663
  29. Chloride Accumulators NKCC1 and AE2 in Mouse GnRH Neurons: Implications for GABAA Mediated Excitation.
    Authors: Taylor-Burds Et al.
    J Clin Invest 2015;10:e0131076
  30. G-Protein Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Minimally Regulates Melanopsin Activity in Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells.
    Authors: Sexton and Gelder
    PLoS One 2015;10:e0128690
  31. Presynaptic mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity: effects on vesicular release, vesicle clustering and mitochondria number.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    PLoS One 2015;10:e0127461
  32. MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism.
    Authors: Bernard and Zhang
    PLoS One 2015;10:e0124816
  33. Bursting reverberation as a multiscale neuronal network process driven by synaptic depression-facilitation.
    Authors: Duc Et al.
    J Neurosci 2015;10:e0124694
  34. Postsynaptic target specific synaptic dysfunctions in the CA3 area of BACE1 knockout mice.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    PLoS One 2014;9:e92279
  35. Both neurons and astrocytes exhibited tetrodotoxin-resistant metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent spontaneous slow Ca2+ oscillations in striatum.
    Authors: Tamura Et al.
    PLoS One 2014;9:e85351
  36. The Ca2+ sensor protein swiprosin-1/EFhd2 is present in neurites and involved in kinesin-mediated transport in neurons.
    Authors: Purohit Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2014;9:e103976
  37. Dynamic properties of the alkaline vesicle population at hippocampal synapses.
    Authors: Röther Et al.
    PLoS One 2014;9:e102723
  38. Interleukin-1β causes excitotoxic neurodegeneration and multiple sclerosis disease progression by activating the apoptotic protein p53.
    Authors: Rossi Et al.
    Mol Neurodegener 2014;9:56
  39. Lamina-specific contribution of glutamatergic and GABAergic potentials to hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes.
    Authors: Schönberger Et al.
    J Neurosci 2014;8:103
  40. Synaptic plasticity in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission following chronic memantine treatment in an in vitro model of limbic epileptogenesis.
    Authors: He and Bausch
    Neuropharmacology 2014;77:379
  41. Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    Nat Commun 2014;5:3284
  42. Generation of induced neuronal cells by the single reprogramming factor ASCL1.
    Authors: Chanda Et al.
    Stem Cell Reports 2014;3:282
  43. Genetic elimination of GABAergic neurotransmission reveals two distinct pacemakers for spontaneous waves of activity in the developing mouse cortex.
    Authors: Easton Et al.
    J Neurosci 2014;34:3854
  44. GluA1 phosphorylation contributes to postsynaptic amplification of neuropathic pain in the insular cortex.
    Authors: Qiu Et al.
    J Neurosci 2014;34:13505
  45. Accumulation of GABAergic neurons, causing a focal ambient GABA gradient, and downregulation of KCC2 are induced during microgyrus formation in a mouse model of polymicrogyria.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    Cereb Cortex 2014;24:1088
  46. Isoliquiritigenin, a chalcone compound, enhances spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic response.
    Authors: Woo Et al.
    Exp Neurobiol 2014;23:163
  47. Distinct temporal expression of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors on cerebellar granule cells in mice.
    Authors: Oostland Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2014;13:491
  48. Deranged NMDAergic cortico-subthalamic transmission underlies parkinsonian motor deficits.
    Authors: Pan Et al.
    Eur J Neurosci 2014;124:4629
  49. GPR35 activation reduces Ca2+ transients and contributes to the kynurenic acid-dependent reduction of synaptic activity at CA3-CA1 synapses.
    Authors: Berlinguer-Palmini Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;8:e82180
  50. Hyperactivity of ON-type retinal ganglion cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
    Authors: Yu Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;8:e76049
  51. Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit.
    Authors: Neuser Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;8:e66497
  52. NMDA-receptor activation but not ion flux is required for amyloid-β induced synaptic depression.
    Authors: Tamburri Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;8:e65350
  53. In vivo optogenetic tracing of functional corticocortical connections between motor forelimb areas.
    Authors: Hira Et al.
    J Neurosci 2013;7:55
  54. β-Noradrenergic receptor activation specifically modulates the generation of sighs in vivo and in vitro.
    Authors: Viemari Et al.
    EMBO J 2013;7:179
  55. Cortical interneurons that specialize in disinhibitory control.
    Authors: Pi Et al.
    Nature 2013;503:521
  56. Synapsin II desynchronizes neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses by interacting with presynaptic calcium channels.
    Authors: Medrihan Et al.
    Nat Commun 2013;4:1512
  57. Axonal translation of β-catenin regulates synaptic vesicle dynamics.
    Authors: Taylor Et al.
    J Neurosci 2013;33:5584
  58. Postnatal loss of P/Q-type channels confined to rhombic-lip-derived neurons alters synaptic transmission at the parallel fiber to purkinje cell synapse and replicates genomic Cacna1a mutation phenotype of ataxia and seizures in mice.
    Authors: Maejima Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013;33:5162
  59. An essential role for inhibitor-2 regulation of protein phosphatase-1 in synaptic scaling.
    Authors: Siddoway Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2013;33:11206
  60. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3β regulate gephyrin postsynaptic aggregation and GABAergic synaptic function in a calpain-dependent mechanism.
    Authors: Tyagarajan Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2013;288:9634
  61. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation controls cell surface expression of γ-aminobutyric acid, type B receptors.
    Authors: Zemoura Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2013;288:34897
  62. Long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength in spinothalamic tract neurons of the rat spinal cord.
    Authors: Hur and Park
    Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2013;17:553
  63. Regulation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase by NMDA-receptor-induced seizure activity in cortical slices.
    Authors: Yamagata Et al.
    Brain Res 2013;1507:1
  64. Independent circuits in the basal ganglia for the evaluation and selection of actions.
    Authors: Stephenson-Jones Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013;110:E3670
  65. Synaptic and extrasynaptic transmission of kidney-related neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla.
    Authors: Gao and Derbenev
    J Neurophysiol 2013;110:2637
  66. Neurons generated by direct conversion of fibroblasts reproduce synaptic phenotype caused by autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutation.
    Authors: Chanda Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013;110:16622
  67. Synaptic and extrasynaptic plasticity in glutamatergic circuits involving dentate granule cells following chronic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor inhibition.
    Authors: He Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2013;109:1535
  68. Lovastatin modulates glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway and inhibits mossy fiber sprouting after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Neurochem Int 2012;7:e38789
  69. Activity-induced remodeling of olfactory bulb microcircuits revealed by monosynaptic tracing.
    Authors: Arenkiel Et al.
    PLoS One 2012;6:e29423
  70. Opposing Effects of Intrinsic Conductance and Correlated Synaptic Input on V-Fluctuations during Network Activity.
    Authors: Kolind Et al.
    Front Comput Neurosci 2012;6:40
  71. Increased Kv1 channel expression may contribute to decreased sIPSC frequency following chronic inhibition of NR2B-containing NMDAR.
    Authors: He Et al.
    Neuropsychopharmacology 2012;37:1338
  72. Optimization of a GCaMP calcium indicator for neural activity imaging.
    Authors: Akerboom Et al.
    J Neurosci 2012;32:13819
  73. K+ depolarization evokes ATP, adenosine and glutamate release from glia in rat hippocampus: a microelectrode biosensor study.
    Authors: Heinrich Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol 2012;167:1003
  74. Altered neurotransmitter release, vesicle recycling and presynaptic structure in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Authors: Upreti Et al.
    Brain 2012;135:869
  75. Functional refinement in the projection from ventral cochlear nucleus to lateral superior olive precedes hearing onset in rat.
    Authors: Case Et al.
    PLoS One 2011;6:e20756
  76. Capsaicin-induced changes in LTP in the lateral amygdala are mediated by TRPV1.
    Authors: Zschenderlein Et al.
    PLoS One 2011;6:e16116
  77. 11-Deoxycortisol impedes GABAergic neurotransmission and induces drug-resistant status epilepticus in mice.
    Authors: Kaminski Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011;60:1098
  78. Enhanced Synaptic Activity and Epileptiform Events in the Embryonic KCC2 Deficient Hippocampus.
    Authors: Khalilov Et al.
    Front Cell Neurosci 2011;5:23
  79. Profound desensitization by ambient GABA limits activation of δ-containing GABAA receptors during spillover.
    Authors: Bright Et al.
    J Neurosci 2011;31:753
  80. Homeostatic synaptic plasticity through changes in presynaptic calcium influx.
    Authors: Zhao Et al.
    Hear Res 2011;31:7492
  81. Delayed postnatal loss of P/Q-type calcium channels recapitulates the absence epilepsy, dyskinesia, and ataxia phenotypes of genomic Cacna1a mutations.
    Authors: Mark Et al.
    J Neurosci 2011;31:4311
  82. Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice.
    Authors: Parker Et al.
    J Neurosci 2011;31:17103
  83. Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing.
    Authors: Lazarevic Et al.
    J Neurosci 2011;31:10189
  84. Positive feedback regulation between γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor signaling and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release in developing neurons.
    Authors: Porcher Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits 2011;286:21667
  85. Lateral superior olive function in congenital deafness.
    Authors: Couchman Et al.
    J Neurosci 2011;277:163
  86. Exposure of neurons to excitotoxic levels of glutamate induces cleavage of the RNA editing enzyme, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2, and loss of GLUR2 editing.
    Authors: Mahajan Et al.
    Neuroscience 2011;189:305
  87. Inflammation alters trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in tonically firing lamina II neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn.
    Authors: Kopach Et al.
    Pain 2011;152:912
  88. Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by interferon-γ-mediated disinhibition.
    Authors: Zhu Et al.
    Cell 2011;147:1384
  89. Leptin does not directly affect CNS serotonin neurons to influence appetite.
    Authors: Lam Et al.
    Cell Metab 2011;13:584
  90. Expression and functional properties of TRPM2 channels in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra of the rat.
    Authors: Chung Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits 2011;106:2865
  91. A new mechanism for antiepileptic drug action: vesicular entry may mediate the effects of levetiracetam.
    Authors: Meehan Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2011;106:1227
  92. CB1 modulation of temporally distinct synaptic facilitation among local circuit interneurons mediated by N-type calcium channels in CA1.
    Authors: Ali
    J Neurophysiol 2011;105:1051
  93. Systematic heterogeneity of fractional vesicle pool sizes and release rates of hippocampal synapses.
    Authors: Welzel Et al.
    Biophys J 2011;100:593
  94. SV2 mediates entry of tetanus neurotoxin into central neurons.
    Authors: Yeh Et al.
    PLoS Pathog 2010;6:e1001207
  95. Synapse clusters are preferentially formed by synapses with large recycling pool sizes.
    Authors: Welzel Et al.
    PLoS One 2010;5:e13514
  96. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues modulates the mouse hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via paraventricular glutamatergic neurons.
    Authors: Dimitrov and Usdin
    J Comp Neurol 2010;518:4375
  97. Substance P modulation of TRPC3/7 channels improves respiratory rhythm regularity and ICAN-dependent pacemaker activity.
    Authors: Ben-Mabrouk and Tryba
    Front Cell Neurosci 2010;31:1219
  98. Selective T-type calcium channel block in thalamic neurons reveals channel redundancy and physiological impact of I(T)window.
    Authors: Dreyfus Et al.
    J Neurosci 2010;30:99
  99. Canonical TGF-beta signaling is required for the balance of excitatory/inhibitory transmission within the hippocampus and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle.
    Authors: Sun Et al.
    J Neurosci 2010;30:6025
  100. Dopamine-dependent tuning of striatal inhibitory synaptogenesis.
    Authors: Goffin Et al.
    J Neurosci 2010;30:2935
  101. GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic motoneurons is mediated by a shift in the chloride reversal potential.
    Authors: Gonzalez-Islas Et al.
    J Neurosci 2010;30:13016
  102. Cannabinoids excite circadian clock neurons.
    Authors: Acuna-Goycolea Et al.
    J Neurosci 2010;30:10061
  103. Substitution of 5-HT1A receptor signaling by a light-activated G protein-coupled receptor.
    Authors: Oh Et al.
    J Neurosci 2010;285:30825
  104. Glutamate co-release at GABA/glycinergic synapses is crucial for the refinement of an inhibitory map.
    Authors: Noh Et al.
    Neuropharmacology 2010;13:232
  105. High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation.
    Authors: Xu Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2010;103:2301
  106. Na+ mechanism of delta-opioid receptor induced protection from anoxic K+ leakage in the cortex.
    Authors: Chao Et al.
    Cell Mol Life Sci 2009;66:1105
  107. Mutation of the protein kinase C site in borna disease virus phosphoprotein abrogates viral interference with neuronal signaling and restores normal synaptic activity.
    Authors: Prat Et al.
    J Neurosci 2009;5:e1000425
  108. Prediction and validation of a mechanism to control the threshold for inhibitory synaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Kitagawa Et al.
    Mol Syst Biol 2009;5:280
  109. Exchange and redistribution dynamics of the cytoskeleton of the active zone molecule bassoon.
    Authors: Tsuriel Et al.
    PLoS One 2009;29:351
  110. Novel repression of Kcc2 transcription by REST-RE-1 controls developmental switch in neuronal chloride.
    Authors: Yeo Et al.
    J Neurosci 2009;29:14652
  111. Dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission: frequency-dependent modulation in the mesoventromedial projection.
    Authors: Chuhma Et al.
    Neuroscience 2009;164:1068
  112. Age- and gender-related differences in GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents in GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra reticulata in the rat.
    Authors: Chudomel Et al.
    Neuroscience 2009;163:155
  113. Effects of striatal GABA A-receptor blockade on striatal and cortical activity in monkeys.
    Authors: Darbin and Wichmann
    Nat Neurosci 2008;99:1294
  114. Coupling of neural activity to blood flow in olfactory glomeruli is mediated by astrocytic pathways.
    Authors: Petzold Et al.
    Neuron 2008;58:897
  115. Integrin regulation of cytoplasmic calcium in excitatory neurons depends upon glutamate receptors and release from intracellular stores.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
    Cerebellum 2008;37:770
  116. Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition.
    Authors: Costa Et al.
    J Neurosci 2008;28:8040
  117. Recruitment of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors during synaptic potentiation is regulated by CaM-kinase I.
    Authors: Guire Et al.
    J Neurosci 2008;28:6000
  118. Activity-induced synaptic capture and exocytosis of the neuronal serine protease neurotrypsin.
    Authors: Frischknecht Et al.
    J Neurosci 2008;28:1568
  119. Glutamatergic transmission is sustained at a later period of development of medial nucleus of the trapezoid body-lateral superior olive synapses in circling mice.
    Authors: Hong Et al.
    J Neurosci 2008;28:13003
  120. Synapsin IIa controls the reserve pool of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles.
    Authors: Gitler Et al.
    J Neurosci 2008;28:10835
  121. Activity-dependent phosphorylation of Ser187 is required for SNAP-25-negative modulation of neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels.
    Authors: Pozzi Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008;105:323
  122. Muscarinic receptor activation elicits sustained, recurring depolarizations in reticulospinal neurons.
    Authors: Smetana Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2007;97:3181
  123. Neuregulin-1 enhances depolarization-induced GABA release.
    Authors: Woo Et al.
    Neuron 2007;54:599
  124. AMPAR exocytosis through NO modulation of PICK1.
    Authors: Sossa Et al.
    Neuropharmacology 2007;53:92
  125. Calpain-mediated mGluR1alpha truncation: a key step in excitotoxicity.
    Authors: Xu Et al.
    Neuron 2007;53:399
  126. N-arachidonoyl-dopamine tunes synaptic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons by activating both cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors.
    Authors: Marinelli Et al.
    Neuropsychopharmacology 2007;32:298
  127. Lack of synapsin I reduces the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at central inhibitory synapses.
    Authors: Baldelli Et al.
    J Neurosci 2007;27:13520
  128. Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in retinal ganglion cells.
    Authors: Xia Et al.
    J Neurosci 2007;27:12221
  129. Amyloid precursor protein overexpression depresses excitatory transmission through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms.
    Authors: Ting Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007;104:353
  130. Properties of GluR3 receptors tagged with GFP at the amino or carboxyl terminus.
    Authors: Limon Et al.
    Front Neural Circuits 2007;104:15526
  131. Chronic ethanol exposure and protracted abstinence alter NMDA receptors in central amygdala.
    Authors: Roberto Et al.
    Neuropsychopharmacology 2006;31:988
  132. Ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonism attenuates cue-induced cocaine seeking.
    Authors: Bäckström and Hyytiä
    Neuropsychopharmacology 2006;31:778
  133. Glutamatergic Control of Microvascular Tone by Distinct GABA Neurons in the Cerebellum.
    Authors: Rancillac Et al.
    J Neurosci 2006;26:6997
  134. Direct GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition of the substantia gelatinosa from the rostral ventromedial medulla revealed by in vivo patch-clamp analysis in rats.
    Authors: Kato Et al.
    J Neurosci 2006;26:1787
  135. Differential reelin-induced enhancement of NMDA and AMPA receptor activity in the adult hippocampus.
    Authors: Qiu Et al.
    J Neurosci 2006;26:12943
  136. NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation modulates fear learning as well as amygdaloid synaptic plasticity.
    Authors: Nakazawa Et al.
    Biophys J 2006;25:2867
  137. NMDA receptor mediates tau-induced neurotoxicity by calpain and ERK/MAPK activation.
    Authors: Amadoro Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006;103:2892
  138. GAT-3 transporters regulate inhibition in the neocortex.
    Authors: Kinney
    Mol Cell Neurosci 2005;94:4533
  139. Corticosterone slowly enhances miniature excitatory postsynaptic current amplitude in mice CA1 hippocampal cells.
    Authors: Karst and Joels
    J Neurosci 2005;94:3479
  140. Strong effects of subphysiological temperature on the function and plasticity of mammalian presynaptic terminals.
    Authors: Micheva and Smith
    J Neurophysiol 2005;25:7481
  141. Reelin, very-low-density lipoprotein receptor, and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 control somatic NMDA receptor composition during hippocampal maturation in vitro.
    Authors: Sinagra Et al.
    PLoS One 2005;25:6127
  142. Propofol suppresses synaptic responsiveness of somatosensory relay neurons to excitatory input by potentiating GABA(A) receptor chloride channels.
    Authors: Ying and Goldstein
    Mol Pain 2005;1:2
  143. Properties of external plexiform layer interneurons in mouse olfactory bulb slices.
    Authors: Hamilton Et al.
    Neuroscience 2005;133:819
  144. Opioid-like actions of neuropeptide Y in rat substantia gelatinosa: Y1 suppression of inhibition and Y2 suppression of excitation.
    Authors: Moran Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2004;92:3266
  145. Electrophysiological, pharmacological, and molecular evidence for alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat midbrain dopamine neurons.
    Authors: Wu Et al.
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004;311:80
  146. Tonotopic gradients of membrane and synaptic properties for neurons of the chicken nucleus magnocellularis.
    Authors: Fukui and Ohmori
    PLoS One 2004;24:7514
  147. Metabotropic regulation of intrinsic excitability by synaptic activation of kainate receptors.
    Authors: Melyan Et al.
    J Neurosci 2004;24:4530
  148. Astrocyte-mediated activation of neuronal kainate receptors.
    Authors: Liu Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004;101:3172
  149. Distinct roles of P2X receptors in modulating glutamate release at different primary sensory synapses in rat spinal cord.
    Authors: Nakatsuka Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2003;89:3243
  150. Direct interaction and functional coupling between metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 and voltage-sensitive Cav2.1 Ca2+ channel.
    Authors: Kitano Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2003;278:25101
  151. Separable features of visual cortical plasticity revealed by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A signaling.
    Authors: Fagiolini Et al.
    J Neurophysiol 2003;100:2854
  152. A novel positive allosteric modulator of the GABA(A) receptor: the action of (+)-ROD188.
    Authors: Thomet Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol 2000;131:843
  153. Developmental regulation of spine motility in the mammalian central nervous system.
    Authors: Dunaevsky Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999;96:13438
  154. Mice deficient for prion protein exhibit normal neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.
    Authors: Lledo Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996;93:2403
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Tocris Small Molecules
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CNQX disodium salt

1045 10  
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NBQX

0373 143  
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