|Detection of EphB4 in MCF‑7 Human Cell Line by Flow Cytometry. MCF‑7 human breast cancer cell line was stained with Rat Anti-Human EphB4 PE‑conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB3038P, filled histogram) or isotype control antibody (Catalog # IC005P, open histogram). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.|
EphB4, also known as Htk, Myk1, Tyro11, and Mdk2, is a member of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family and binds Ephrin-B2. The A and B class Eph proteins have a common structural organization (1‑4). The human EphB4 cDNA encodes a 987 amino acid precursor that includes a 15 amino acid (aa) signal sequence, a 524 aa extracellular domain (ECD), a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 427 aa cytoplasmic domain (5). The ECD contains an N-terminal globular domain, a cysteine‑rich domain, and two fibronectin type III domains. The cytoplasmic domain contains a juxtamembrane motif with two tyrosine residues which are the major autophosphorylation sites, a kinase domain, and a conserved Sterile Alpha Motif (SAM) (5). Activation of kinase activity occurs after membrane-bound or clustered ligand recognition and binding. The ECD of human EphB4 shares 89% aa sequence identity with mouse EphB4 and 42‑45% aa sequence identity with human EphB1, 2, and 3. EphB4 is expressed preferentially on venous Endothelial Cells (EC) and inhibits cell-cell adhesion, chemotaxis, and angiogenesis. Opposing effects are induced by signaling through Ephrin-B2 expressed on arterial EC: adhesion, endothelial cell migration, and vessel sprouting (6). EphB4 signaling contributes to new vascularization by guiding venous EC away from Ephrin-B2 expressing EC. Ephrin-B2 signaling induces arterial EC to migrate towards nascent EphB4 expressing vessels (6). The combination of forward signaling through EphB4 and reverse signaling through Ephrin-B2 promotes in vivo mammary tumor growth and tumor‑associated angiogenesis (7). EphB4 promotes the differentiation of megakaryocytic and erythroid progenitors but not granulocytic or monocytic progenitors (8, 9).