Human IL-18/IL-1F4 Alexa Fluor® 700-conjugated Antibody

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IC2548N-100UG
R&D Systems Antibodies
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Human IL-18/IL-1F4 Alexa Fluor® 700-conjugated Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Human
Specificity
Detects human IL-18/IL-1F4 in direct ELISAs.
Source
Monoclonal Mouse IgG1 Clone # 925008
Purification
Protein A or G purified from hybridoma culture supernatant
Immunogen
E. coli-derived recombinant human IL-18/IL-1F4
Tyr37-Asp193
Accession # Q14116
Formulation
Supplied 0.2 mg/mL in a saline solution containing BSA and Sodium Azide.
Label
Alexa Fluor 700 (Excitation= 675-700 nm, Emission= 723 nm)

Applications

Recommended Concentration
Sample
Intracellular Staining by Flow Cytometry
0.25-1 µg/106 cells
THP-1 Human acute monocytic leukemia cell line fixed with paraformaldehyde and permeabilized with saponin

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

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Preparation and Storage

Shipping
The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Protect from light. Do not freeze.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, 2 to 8 °C as supplied.

Background: IL-18/IL-1F4

Interleukin-18 (IL-18), also known as IL-1F4 and IFN-gamma inducing factor (IGIF), is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines and is a key molecule in the innate immune response (1). Rhesus IL-18 is synthesized as a 24 kDa proprotein that contains a 36 amino acid (aa) propeptide and a 157 aa mature region (2). Under inflammatory conditions, the propeptide is cleaved by Caspase-1 in the cytoplasm to liberate the mature nonglycosylated 18 kDa monomeric IL-18 (3, 4). Mature rhesus IL-18 shares 96% aa sequence identity with human IL-18 and 60-76% with mouse, rat, canine, feline, and porcine IL-18. IL-18 is secreted by a variety of cell types including macrophages, dendritic cells, and epithelial cells (1, 5). Circulating mature IL-18 is sequestered by soluble IL-18 binding proteins (IL-18 BP) that inhibit IL-18 bioactivity (6). IL-18 interacts with the widely expressed IL-18 R alpha which then recruits the signaling subunit IL-18 R beta (7, 8). The IL-1 family member IL-1F7 also binds to IL-18 R alpha but does not recruit IL-18 R beta or induce signaling (9). IL-1F7 binds IL-18 BP and enhances its neutralizing effect on IL-18 activity (9). IL-18 synergizes with other cytokines to activate NK, Th1, and Th17 cells and to increase the production of IFN-gamma (1, 5, 10-12). IL-18 can also promote Th2 cytokine release which reduces the effectiveness of antiviral responses (13, 14). Increased levels of active IL-18 contribute to the severity of autoimmunity and hypertension, while deficiency of IL-18 results in symptoms of metabolic syndrome (1, 5, 15, 16). In cancer, IL-18 stimulates Th1 and NK cells to target tumor cells, but it can also promote angiogenesis, metastasis, and tumor cell immune evasion (11).

References
  1. Arend, W.P. et al. (2008) Immunol. Rev. 223:20.
  2. Giavedoni, L.D. et al. (2001) J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 21:173.
  3. Ghayur, T. et al. (1997) Nature 386:619.
  4. Gu, Y. et al. (1997) Science 275:206.
  5. Boraschi, D. and C.A. Dinarello (2006) Eur. Cytokine Netw. 17:224.
  6. Novick, D. et al. (1999) Immunity 10:127.
  7. Torigoe, K. et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272:25737.
  8. Born, T.L. et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273:29445.
  9. Bufler, P. et al. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:13723.
  10. Takeda, K. et al. (1998) Immunity 8:383.
  11. Park, S. et al. (2007) Cell. Mol. Immunol. 4:329.
  12. Yoshimoto, T. et al. (1998) J. Immunol. 161:3400.
  13. Hoshino, T. et al. (2001) J. Immunol. 166:7014.
  14. Iannello, A. et al. (2009) AIDS Rev. 11:115.
  15. Rabkin, S.W. (2009) Nat. Clin. Pract. Cardiovasc. Med. 6:192.
  16. Netea, M.G. et al. (2006) Nat. Med. 12:650.
    Long Name
    Interleukin 18
    Entrez Gene IDs
    3606 (Human); 16173 (Mouse); 29197 (Rat); 397057 (Porcine); 574151 (Primate)
    Alternate Names
    Iboctadekin; IFN-gamma-inducing factor; IGIF; IGIFIL-1 gamma; IL18; IL-18; IL-18MGC12320; IL-1F4; IL1F4iboctadekin; IL-1g; Interferon gamma-inducing factor; interleukin 18 (interferon-gamma-inducing factor); Interleukin-1 gamma; interleukin-18

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    Product Specific Notices


    This product is provided under an agreement between Life Technologies Corporation and R&D Systems, Inc, and the manufacture, use, sale or import of this product is subject to one or more US patents and corresponding non-US equivalents, owned by Life Technologies Corporation and its affiliates. The purchase of this product conveys to the buyer the non-transferable right to use the purchased amount of the product and components of the product only in research conducted by the buyer (whether the buyer is an academic or for-profit entity). The sale of this product is expressly conditioned on the buyer not using the product or its components (1) in manufacturing; (2) to provide a service, information, or data to an unaffiliated third party for payment; (3) for therapeutic, diagnostic or prophylactic purposes; (4) to resell, sell, or otherwise transfer this product or its components to any third party, or for any other commercial purpose. Life Technologies Corporation will not assert a claim against the buyer of the infringement of the above patents based on the manufacture, use or sale of a commercial product developed in research by the buyer in which this product or its components was employed, provided that neither this product nor any of its components was used in the manufacture of such product. For information on purchasing a license to this product for purposes other than research, contact Life Technologies Corporation, Cell Analysis Business Unit, Business Development, 29851 Willow Creek Road, Eugene, OR 97402, Tel: (541) 465-8300. Fax: (541) 335-0354.

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