Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Preparation and Storage
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: IL-31 RA
The interleukin-31 receptor A subunit (IL-31 RA), also known as gp130-Like Monocyte Receptor (GLM-R or GPL), is a ~100 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein that is classified as being a type I cytokine receptor (1, 2). A heterodimeric complex of IL-31 RA and the oncostatin M receptor (OSM-R) functions as the signaling receptor for IL-31 (3). Both subunits are inducibly expressed throughout the myelomonocytic lineage and are upregulated by interferon-gamma and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (1‑3). IL-31 RA is also expressed on keratinocytes, dorsal root ganglia neurons, and variably on lung epithelial cells (3‑6). The 732 amino acid (aa) IL-31 RA contains a 19 aa signal sequence, a 500 aa extracellular domain (ECD), a 21 aa transmembrane domain and a 192 aa cytoplasmic domain. The ECD shares 60%, 58%, 73% and 70% aa identity with mouse, rat, canine and bovine IL-31 RA ECD, respectively. Human IL-31 receptors do not respond to mouse IL-31 (7). The ECD contains five fibronectin type III domains; the first two contain four conserved cysteine residues and a WSXWS motif common to type I cytokine receptors (2). Twelve alternately spliced human IL-31 RA isoforms are known and range in size from 356‑745 amino acids. A long (745 aa) and a short (560 aa) transmembrane form are the predominant forms, and many cell lines express both forms (8). The long form, like the 732 aa form, signals by recruiting STAT3, 5 or 1, while the short form does not recruit STATs and inhibits IL-31 signaling. The ratio of these forms and their co-expression with OSM-R determines a cell’s response to IL‑31 (8). In both humans and transgenic mice, IL-31 from skin-homing Th2 cells may contribute to the pruritis (itching) associated with nonatopic dermatitis, especially in infected skin (3, 9, 10).
Ghilardi, N. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277:16831.
Diveu, C. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:49850.
Dillon, S. R. et al. (2004) Nat. Immunol. 5:752.
Chattopadhyay, S. et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282:3014.
Perrigoue, J. G. et al. (2007) J. Exp. Med. 204:481.
Bando, T. et al. (2006) Neuroscience 142:1263.
Broxmeyer, H. E. et al. (2007) Exp. Hematol. 35:78.
Diveu, C. et al. (2004) Eur. Cytokine. Netw. 15:291.
Bilsborough, J. et al. (2006) J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117:418.
Sonkoly, E. et al. (2006) J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 117:411.
Interleukin 31 Receptor A
Entrez Gene IDs:
133396 (Human); 218624 (Mouse)
class I cytokine receptor; CRL3; CRL3Glmr; Cytokine receptor-like 3; GLMR; GLM-R; GLM-RMGC125346; GP130 like receptor; Gp130-like monocyte receptor; Gp130-like receptor; hGLM-R; IL-31 RA; IL-31 receptor subunit alpha; IL-31R subunit alpha; IL31RA; IL-31RA; IL-31RAGPLCRL; IL-31R-alpha; interleukin 31 receptor A; interleukin-31 receptor subunit alpha; PRO21384; soluble type I cytokine receptor CRL3; zcytoR17
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products.
The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
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