Mouse CTLA-4 Alexa Fluor® 405-conjugated Antibody Summary
Accession # XP_001479180
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Preparation and Storage
CTLA-4 and CD28, together with their ligands B7-1 and B7-2, constitute one of the dominant costimulatory pathways that regulate T and B cell responses. CTLA-4 and CD28 are structurally homologous molecules that are members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene superfamily. Both CTLA-4 and CD28 are composed of a single Ig V‑like extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain. CTLA-4 and CD28 are both expressed on the cell surface as disulfide-linked homodimers or as monomers. The genes encoding these two molecules are closely linked on human chromosome 2. CTLA-4 was originally identified as a gene that was specifically expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. However, CTLA-4 transcripts have since been found in both Th1 and Th2, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones. Whereas, CD28 expression is constitutive on the surfaces of 95% of CD4+ T cells and 50% of CD8+ T cells and is down regulated upon T cell activation, CTLA-4 expression is upregulated rapidly following T cell activation and peaks approximately 24 hours following activation. Although both CTLA-4 and CD28 can bind to the same ligands, CTLA-4 binds to B7-1 and B7-2 with 20-100-fold higher affinity than CD28. The physiological role of CTLA-4 in T cell costimulation is currently being studied. Recombinant human or mouse CTLA-4/Fc chimera preparations produced at R&D Systems have been shown to bind both B7-1 and B7-2 with high affinity and to inhibit CD28 signalling competitively.
- Lenschow, D.J. et al. (1996) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 14:233.
- Hathcock, K.S. and R.J. Hodes (1996) Advances in Immunol. 62:131.
- Ward, S.G. (1996) Biochem. J. 318:361.
Product Specific Notices
This product is provided under an agreement between Life Technologies Corporation and R&D Systems, Inc, and the manufacture, use, sale or import of this product is subject to one or more US patents and corresponding non-US equivalents, owned by Life Technologies Corporation and its affiliates. The purchase of this product conveys to the buyer the non-transferable right to use the purchased amount of the product and components of the product only in research conducted by the buyer (whether the buyer is an academic or for-profit entity). The sale of this product is expressly conditioned on the buyer not using the product or its components (1) in manufacturing; (2) to provide a service, information, or data to an unaffiliated third party for payment; (3) for therapeutic, diagnostic or prophylactic purposes; (4) to resell, sell, or otherwise transfer this product or its components to any third party, or for any other commercial purpose. Life Technologies Corporation will not assert a claim against the buyer of the infringement of the above patents based on the manufacture, use or sale of a commercial product developed in research by the buyer in which this product or its components was employed, provided that neither this product nor any of its components was used in the manufacture of such product. For information on purchasing a license to this product for purposes other than research, contact Life Technologies Corporation, Cell Analysis Business Unit, Business Development, 29851 Willow Creek Road, Eugene, OR 97402, Tel: (541) 465-8300. Fax: (541) 335-0354.
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