Mouse/Hamster GDF-9 Antibody Summary
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Detection of Mouse and Hamster GDF‑9 by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of human ovary tissue and CHO Chinese hamster ovary cell line. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Mouse/Hamster GDF-9 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF739) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). A specific band was detected for GDF-9 at approximately 18 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.
GDF‑9 in Mouse Ovary. GDF-9 was detected in perfusion fixed frozen sections of mouse ovary using Goat Anti-Mouse/Hamster GDF-9 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF739) at 5 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog # NL001) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). Specific staining was localized to developing oocytes. View our protocol for Fluorescent IHC Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta ) superfamily, and is an oocyte secreted paracrine factor essential for mammalian ovarian folliculogenesis (1‑2). Mouse GDF-9 is synthesized as a 441 amino acid (aa) prepropeptide that contains a 29 aa signal sequence, a 277 aa propeptide, and a 135 aa mature chain. Residues 340‑441 constitute a TGF-beta like domain. In addition, there is one potential site of N-linked glycosylation in the mature chain. Unlike other members of the TGF-beta superfamily, GDF‑9 lacks the conserved cysteine residue that is believed to form the sole disulfide linkage between subunits in other family members (3). Mature mouse GDF-9 shares 90% aa sequence identity with mature human GDF 9. The protein is expressed throughout the development of the maturing follicle (2). GDF-9 functions as a paracrine factor in the regulation of granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation, and is essential for fertility (2, 4). Studies on GDF-9 null mice have demonstrated arrested follicular development at the primary follicle stage (5). Mouse GDF-9 induces Smad2 phosphorylation and inhibin production in rat diethylstilbestrol treated granulosa cells (6) and in human granulosa-luteal cells (7). The downstream signaling actions of GDF 9 are mediated by the type I receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5), initiating the subsequent activation of Smad2 and Smad3 (2, 8). GDF 9 uses the BMP type II receptor (BMPRII) as its other signaling receptor (2, 9).
- McGrath, S.A. et al. (1995) Mol. Endocrinol. 9:131.
- Mottershead, D.G. et al. (2008) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 283:58.
- McPherron, A.C. and S.-J. Lee (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 268:3444.
- Gilchrist, R.B. et al. (2006) J. Cell. Sci. 119:3811.
- Dong, J. et al. (1996) Nature 383:531.
- Roh, J.S. et al. (2003) Endocrinology 144:172.
- Kaivo-Oja, N. et al. (2003) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88:755.
- Mazerbourg, S. et al. (2004) Mol. Endocrinol. 18:653.
- Vitt, U.A. et al. (2002) Biol. Reprod. 67:473.
Citations for Mouse/Hamster GDF-9 Antibody
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GDF9 is transiently expressed in oocytes before follicle formation in the human fetal ovary and is regulated by a novel NOBOX transcript.
Authors: Bayne R, Kinnell H, Coutts S, He J, Childs A, Anderson R
PLoS ONE, 2015;10(3):e0119819.
Sample Types: Whole Tissue
Oocyte generation in adult mammalian ovaries by putative germ cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood.
Authors: Johnson J, Bagley J, Skaznik-Wikiel M, Lee HJ, Adams GB, Niikura Y, Tschudy KS, Tilly JC, Cortes ML, Forkert R, Spitzer T, Iacomini J, Scadden DT, Tilly JL
Sample Types: Whole Tissue
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