The vast majority of IHC/ICC procedures employ fixation of tissues and cells using formaldehyde-based fixatives. The protocol below describes the technique for generating a 4% formaldehyde solution in PBS. The most effective fixative must be determined experimentally.
Caution: Formaldehyde is toxic. Please read the MSDS before working with this chemical. Gloves and safety glasses should be worn and solutions made inside a fume hood.
Please read the protocol in its entirety before starting.
Paraformaldehyde (chemical name is polyoxymethylene) is a powder of polymerized formaldehyde that by itself cannot fix tissues. To be usable as a tissue fixative, paraformaldehyde has to be dissolved in hot water to become a formaldehyde solution. Formalin is a saturated formaldehyde solution in water (37% by weight, 40% by volume) containing 10-15% methanol. Methanol is added to slow down the polymerization to formaldehyde, which reduces the fixing power of formalin. Formalin can also be made in an alcohol-free form from powdered paraformaldehyde.