Recombinant Human CCL4/MIP-1 beta Protein

  (21 citations)     
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Product Details
Citations (21)
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  • Purity
    >97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured by its ability to chemoattract BaF3 mouse pro‑B cells transfected with human CCR5. The ED50 for this effect is 1‑6 ng/mL.
  • Source
    E. coli-derived human CCL4/MIP-1 beta protein
    Ala24-Asn92 (major); Pro30-Asn92 (Minor)
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Ala24 (Major); Pro30 (Minor)
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    7.8 kDa & 7.3 kDa
Product Datasheets

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Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
271-BME
 
271-BME/CF
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
 
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
 
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
 
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
 
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: CCL4/MIP-1 beta
CCL4, also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta (MIP-1 beta ) is a 7.8 kDa beta chemokine that is secreted at sites of inflammation by activated leukocytes, lymphocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and pulmonary smooth muscle cells (1, 2). CCL4 attracts a variety of immune cells to sites of microbial infection as well as to other pathologic inflammation such as allergic asthma and ischemic myocardium (3 - 8). A CCL4 deficiency in mice promotes the development of autoantibodies, possibly as a result of compromised regulatory T cell recruitment (6). CCL4 is secreted from activated monocytes as a heterodimer with CCL3/MIP-1 alpha (9). The first two N-terminal amino acids can be cleaved from human CCL4 by CD26/DPPIV (10, 11). Both the full length and truncated forms exert biological activity through CCR5, and the truncated form additionally interacts with CCR1 and CCR2b (10). In humans, the ability of CCL4 to bind CCR5 inhibits the cellular entry of M-tropic HIV-1 which utilizes CCR5 as a coreceptor (2). Both forms of CCL4 block HIV-1 infection of T cells by inducing the downregulation of CCR5 (10). Mature human CCL4 shares 77% and 80% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat CCL4, respectively.
  • References:
    1. Rot, A. and U.H. von Andrian (2004) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 22:891.
    2. Menten, P. et al. (2002) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13:455.
    3. Sun, X. et al. (2006) Infec. Immun. 74:5943.
    4. Bisset, L.R. and Schmid-Grendelmeier, P. (2005) Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. 11:35.
    5. Frangogiannis, N.G. (2004) Inflamm. Res. 53:585.
    6. Bystry, R.S. et al. (2001) Nat. Immunol. 2:1126.
    7. Oliveira, S.H.P. et al. (2002) J. Leukoc. Biol. 71:1019.
    8. Schall, T.J. et al. (1993) J. Exp. Med. 177:1821.
    9. Guan, E. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:12404.
    10. Guan, E. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277:32348.
    11. Guan, E. et al. (2004) J. Cell. Biochem. 92:53.
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    6351 (Human); 20303 (Mouse); 116637 (Rat); 448786 (Canine)
  • Alternate Names:
    ACT2; ACT-2; AT744.1; C-C motif chemokine 4; CCL4; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4; Exodus-3; G-26 T-lymphocyte-secreted protein; G-26; HC21; LAG1; LAG-1; Lymphocyte activation gene 1 protein; Macrophage inflammatory protein 1-beta; MIP1 beta; MIP-1 beta; MIP1B; MIP1B1; MIP-1-beta; MIP-1-beta(1-69); PAT 744; Protein H400; SCYA2; SCYA4; secreted protein G-26; SIS-gamma; small inducible cytokine A4 (homologous to mouse Mip-1b); Small-inducible cytokine A4; T-cell activation protein 2
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

21 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Adsorption as a Contributor for Inflammatory Mediators Removal by Different Hemofiltration Membranes: A Pilot Study
    Authors: Benjamin Malard
    Artif Organs, 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Plasma
    Application: Hemofiltration Procedure
  2. HIV-1 gp120 activates the STAT3/interleukin-6 axis in primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.
    Authors: Del Corno M, Donninelli G, Varano B, Da Sacco L, Masotti A, Gessani S
    J Virol, 2014;88(19):11045-55.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  3. CCR5 is a receptor for Staphylococcus aureus leukotoxin ED.
    Authors: Alonzo, Francis, Kozhaya, Lina, Rawlings, Stephen, Reyes-Robles, Tamara, DuMont, Ashley L, Myszka, David G, Landau, Nathanie, Unutmaz, Derya, Torres, Victor J
    Nature, 2013;493(7430):51-5.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  4. Widespread potential for growth-factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors.
    Authors: Wilson TR, Fridlyand J, Yan Y, Penuel E, Burton L, Chan E, Peng J, Lin E, Wang Y, Sosman J, Ribas A, Li J, Moffat J, Sutherlin DP, Koeppen H, Merchant M, Neve R, Settleman J
    Nature, 2012;487(7408):505-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  5. Thymoquinone inhibits the CXCL12-induced chemotaxis of multiple myeloma cells and increases their susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis.
    Authors: Badr G, Lefevre EA, Mohany M
    PLoS ONE, 2011;6(9):e23741.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  6. CCL19 is a specific ligand of the constitutively recycling atypical human chemokine receptor CRAM-B.
    Authors: Leick M, Catusse J, Follo M, Nibbs RJ, Hartmann TN, Veelken H, Burger M
    Immunology, 2010;129(4):536-46.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  7. Infiltrated neutrophils acquire novel chemokine receptor expression and chemokine responsiveness in chronic inflammatory lung diseases.
    Authors: Hartl D, Krauss-Etschmann S, Koller B, Hordijk PL, Kuijpers TW, Hoffmann F, Hector A, Eber E, Marcos V, Bittmann I, Eickelberg O, Griese M, Roos D
    J. Immunol., 2008;181(11):8053-67.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  8. Expression of CCR5 receptors on Reed-Sternberg cells and Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines: involvement of CCL5/Rantes in tumor cell growth and microenvironmental interactions.
    Authors: Aldinucci D, Lorenzon D, Cattaruzza L, Pinto A, Gloghini A, Carbone A, Colombatti A
    Int. J. Cancer, 2008;122(4):769-76.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  9. Cognate CD4+ T-cell-dendritic cell interactions induce migration of immature dendritic cells through dissolution of their podosomes.
    Authors: Nobile C, Lind M, Miro F, Chemin K, Tourret M, Occhipinti G, Dogniaux S, Amigorena S, Hivroz C
    Blood, 2008;111(7):3579-90.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  10. Regulation of D6 chemokine scavenging activity by ligand- and Rab11-dependent surface up-regulation.
    Authors: Bonecchi R, Borroni EM, Anselmo A, Doni A, Savino B, Mirolo M, Fabbri M, Jala VR, Haribabu B, Mantovani A, Locati M
    Blood, 2008;112(3):493-503.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  11. C-reactive protein (CRP) induces chemokine secretion via CD11b/ICAM-1 interaction in human adherent monocytes.
    Authors: Montecucco F, Steffens S, Burger F, Pelli G, Monaco C, Mach F
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2008;84(4):1109-19.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  12. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by viral chemokine U83A via high-affinity CCR5 interactions that block human chemokine-induced leukocyte chemotaxis and receptor internalization.
    Authors: Catusse J, Parry CM, Dewin DR, Gompels UA
    Blood, 2007;109(9):3633-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  13. HIV-1 pathogenesis differs in rectosigmoid and tonsillar tissues infected ex vivo with CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic HIV-1.
    Authors: Grivel JC, Elliott J, Lisco A, Biancotto A, Condack C, Shattock RJ, McGowan I, Margolis L, Anton P
    AIDS, 2007;21(10):1263-72.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Type: N/A
    Application: ELISA Standard
  14. Abnormal activation and cytokine spectra in lymph nodes of people chronically infected with HIV-1.
    Authors: Biancotto A, Grivel JC, Iglehart SJ, Vanpouille C, Lisco A, Sieg SF, Debernardo R, Garate K, Rodriguez B, Margolis LB, Lederman MM
    Blood, 2007;109(10):4272-9.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Type: N/A
    Application: ELISA Standard
  15. Human dendritic cells acquire a semimature phenotype and lymph node homing potential through interaction with CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.
    Authors: Bayry J, Triebel F, Kaveri SV, Tough DF
    J. Immunol., 2007;178(7):4184-93.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  16. Changes in soluble factor-mediated CD8+ cell-derived antiviral activity in cynomolgus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251: relationship to biological markers of progression.
    Authors: Dioszeghy V, Benlhassan-Chahour K, Delache B, Dereuddre-Bosquet N, Aubenque C, Gras G, Le Grand R, Vaslin B
    J. Virol., 2006;80(1):236-45.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Type: N/A
    Application: ELISA Standard
  17. Novel antiviral activity of chemokines.
    Authors: Nakayama T, Shirane J, Hieshima K, Shibano M, Watanabe M, Jin Z, Nagakubo D, Saito T, Shimomura Y, Yoshie O
    Virology, 2006;350(2):484-92.
    Species: Virus
    Sample Type: Virus
    Application: Binding Assay
  18. Increased expression of Th2-associated chemokines in bullous pemphigoid disease. Role of eosinophils in the production and release of these chemokines.
    Authors: Gounni Abdelilah S, Wellemans V, Agouli M, Guenounou M, Hamid Q, Beck LA, Lamkhioued B
    Clin. Immunol., 2006;120(2):220-31.
  19. Inhibition of the development of collagen-induced arthritis in rhesus monkeys by a small molecular weight antagonist of CCR5.
    Authors: Vierboom MP, Zavodny PJ, Chou CC, Tagat JR, Pugliese-Sivo C, Strizki J, Steensma RW, McCombie SW, Celebi-Paul L, Remarque E, Jonker M, Narula SK, Hart B
    Arthritis Rheum., 2005;52(2):627-36.
    Species: Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  20. CCR5-binding chemokines modulate CXCL12 (SDF-1)-induced responses of progenitor B cells in human bone marrow through heterologous desensitization of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor.
    Authors: Honczarenko M, Le Y, Glodek AM, Silberstein LE
    Blood, 2002;100(7):2321-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  21. Induction of inhibitory antibodies to the CCR5 chemokine receptor and their complementary role in preventing SIV infection in macaques.
    Authors: Lehner T, Wang Y, Doyle C, Tao L, Bergmeier LA, Mitchell E, Bogers WM, Heeney J, Kelly CG
    Eur. J. Immunol., 1999;29(8):2427-35.
    Species: Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
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