Recombinant Human CXCL4/PF4 Protein, CF

Formulations:
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
795-P4-025/CF
Product Details
Citations (12)
FAQs
Supplemental Products
Reviews

Recombinant Human CXCL4/PF4 Protein, CF Summary

Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
Endotoxin Level
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its ability to inhibit the FGF basic-dependent proliferation of HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Dubrac, A. et al. (2010) Blood 116:4703. The ED50 for this effect is 2-10 µg/mL.
Source
E. coli-derived human CXCL4/PF4 protein
Glu32-Ser101
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Glu32
Predicted Molecular Mass
7.8 kDa

Product Datasheets

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

795-P4/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

795-P4

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

=
÷

Background: CXCL4/PF4

CXCL4, also called PF4 (platelet factor 4), is an 8 kDa member of the CXC chemokine family, sharing features with CXCL8/IL-8 and CXCL7/NAP-2 (1-3). Mature human CXCL4 shares 65-76% amino acid sequence identity with mouse, rat, bovine, ovine and porcine CXCL4. The active protein is a tetramer of CXCL4 subunits that forms a ring of heparin-binding positive charges from sites at the C-terminal region of each monomer (3). Megakaryocytes synthesize CXCL4 and store it in platelet alpha -granules (2, 3). Secretion from activated platelets can produce micromolar levels in serum and over 100-fold higher within clots (2, 3). In contrast to other CXC chemokines, CXCL4 does not contain an ELR motif and lacks binding to nearly all chemokine receptors (2, 3). A potential high-affinity G-protein-coupled receptor for CXCL4, the CXCR3 isoform CXCR3B, is expressed in human but not mouse (2, 3). In most cases, it is likely that cell surface binding and signaling properties of CXCL4 are due to binding of glycosaminoglycans chains, particularly chondroitin sulfates (2). CXCL4 released from activated platelets binds and regulates thrombin/thrombomodulin complexes, regulates and enhances production of activated Protein C (APC), and limits the coagulation cascade (2-6). It binds and influences the enzymatic activity of coagulation factor Xa (7). It binds fibrin and affects clot structure (8). Therapeutic doses of the anticoagulant heparin neutralize CXCL4 procoagulant effects (9). The complex between heparin and CXCL4 can be immunogenic, and circulating CXCL4-heparin antibodies cause the pathological syndrome HITT (heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis, also called HIT) (2). In addition, immunogenic complexes of CXCL4 with apolipoprotein H can contribute to antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) (10). CXCL4 can be antiproliferative and antiangiogenic, at least in part via interfering with FGF-2 and VEGF heparin binding and thus inhibiting their signaling (3, 11-13). However, it can also be proinflammatory and pro-atherogenic through multiple effects on monocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells (2, 3).

References
  1. Poncz, M. et al. (1987) Blood 69:219.
  2. Kowalska, M.A. et al. (2010) Thromb. Res. 125:292.
  3. Slungaard, A. (2005) Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 37:1162.
  4. Slungaard, A. et al. (2003) Blood 102:146.
  5. Kowalska, M.A. et al. (2007) Blood 110:1903.
  6. Preston, R.J.S. et al. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284:5869.
  7. Fiore, M.M. and I.J. Mackie (2009) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 379:1072.
  8. Amelot, A.A. et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282:710.
  9. Eslin, D.E. et al. (2004) Blood 104:3173.
  10. Sikara, M.P. et al. (2010) Blood 115:713.
  11. Perollet, C. et al. (1998) Blood 91:3289.
  12. Gengrinovitch, S. et al. (1995) Journal of Biological Chemistry 270:15059.
  13. Sulpice, E. et al. (2004) Eur. J. Biochem. 271:3310.
Entrez Gene IDs
5196 (Human); 56744 (Mouse); 360918 (Rat)
Alternate Names
chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4; C-X-C motif chemokine 4; CXCL4; CXCL4iroplact; Iroplact; MGC138298; Oncostatin-A; PF4; PF-4; platelet factor 4; SCYB4oncostatin-A

Citations for Recombinant Human CXCL4/PF4 Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

12 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
Filter your results:

Filter by:

  1. Platelet factor 4 promotes rapid replication and propagation of Dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses
    Authors: A Ojha, A Bhasym, S Mukherjee, GK Annarapu, T Bhakuni, I Akbar, T Seth, NK Vikram, S Vrati, A Basu, S Bhattachar, P Guchhait
    EBioMedicine, 2019;39(0):332-347.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. Angiopoietins bind thrombomodulin and inhibit its function as a thrombin cofactor
    Authors: C Daly, X Qian, C Castanaro, E Pasnikowsk, X Jiang, BR Thomson, SE Quaggin, N Papadopoul, Y Wei, JS Rudge, G Thurston, GD Yancopoulo, S Davis
    Sci Rep, 2018;8(1):505.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. Induction of cathepsin B by the CXCR3 chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 in human breast cancer cells
    Authors: H Bronger, A Karge, T Dreyer, D Zech, S Kraeft, S Avril, M Kiechle, M Schmitt
    Oncol Lett, 2017;13(6):4224-4230.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Islet inflammation and ductal proliferation may be linked to increased pancreatitis risk in type 2 diabetes
    Authors: B Schludi, ASM Moin, C Montemurro, T Gurlo, AV Matveyenko, D Kirakossia, DW Dawson, SM Dry, PC Butler, AE Butler
    JCI Insight, 2017;2(13):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. Gli1(+) Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Are a Key Driver of Bone Marrow Fibrosis and an Important Cellular Therapeutic Target
    Authors: RK Schneider, A Mullally, A Dugourd, F Peisker, R Hoogenboez, PMH Van Strien, EM Bindels, D Heckl, G Büsche, D Fleck, G Müller-New, J Wongboonsi, M Ventura Fe, VG Puelles, J Saez-Rodri, BL Ebert, BD Humphreys, R Kramann
    Cell Stem Cell, 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  6. Collagen can selectively trigger a platelet secretory phenotype via glycoprotein VI.
    Authors: Ollivier V, Syvannarath V, Gros A, Butt A, Loyau S, Jandrot-Perrus M, Ho-Tin-Noe B
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(8):e104712.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry Control
  7. A novel CXCR3-B chemokine receptor-induced growth-inhibitory signal in cancer cells is mediated through the regulation of Bach-1 protein and Nrf2 protein nuclear translocation.
    Authors: Balan M, Pal S
    J Biol Chem, 2014;289(6):3126-37.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. The CD8-derived chemokine XCL1/lymphotactin is a conformation-dependent, broad-spectrum inhibitor of HIV-1.
    Authors: Guzzo C, Fox J, Lin Y, Miao H, Cimbro R, Volkman B, Fauci A, Lusso P
    PLoS Pathog, 2013;9(12):e1003852.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  9. Widespread potential for growth-factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors.
    Authors: Wilson TR, Fridlyand J, Yan Y, Penuel E, Burton L, Chan E, Peng J, Lin E, Wang Y, Sosman J, Ribas A, Li J, Moffat J, Sutherlin DP, Koeppen H, Merchant M, Neve R, Settleman J
    Nature, 2012;487(7408):505-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. CXCR3 activation by lentivirus infection suppresses neuronal autophagy: neuroprotective effects of antiretroviral therapy.
    Authors: Zhu Y, Vergote D, Pardo C, Noorbakhsh F, McArthur JC, Hollenberg MD, Overall CM, Power C
    FASEB J., 2009;23(9):2928-41.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  11. Ras-induced modulation of CXCL10 and its receptor splice variant CXCR3-B in MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7 cells: relevance for the development of human breast cancer.
    Authors: Datta D, Flaxenburg JA, Laxmanan S, Geehan C, Grimm M, Waaga-Gasser AM, Briscoe DM, Pal S
    Cancer Res., 2006;66(19):9509-18.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  12. Novel antiviral activity of chemokines.
    Authors: Nakayama T, Shirane J, Hieshima K, Shibano M, Watanabe M, Jin Z, Nagakubo D, Saito T, Shimomura Y, Yoshie O
    Virology, 2006;350(2):484-92.
    Species: Virus
    Sample Types: Virus
    Applications: Binding Assay

FAQs

No product specific FAQs exist for this product, however you may

View all Proteins and Enzyme FAQs

Reviews for Recombinant Human CXCL4/PF4 Protein, CF

There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to review Recombinant Human CXCL4/PF4 Protein, CF and earn rewards!

Have you used Recombinant Human CXCL4/PF4 Protein, CF?

Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.

$25/€18/£15/$25CAN/¥75 Yuan/¥1250 Yen for a review with an image

$10/€7/£6/$10 CAD/¥70 Yuan/¥1110 Yen for a review without an image

Submit a Review