Recombinant Human Dkk-1 C-Terminal Fragment Protein, CF

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Recombinant Human Dkk-1 C-Terminal Fragment Protein, CF Summary

Product Specifications

>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA. When Recombinant Human LRP‑6 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 1505-LR) is immobilized onto a Goat anti-Human IgG Fc antibody coated plate, the concentration of Recombinant Human Dkk‑1 C-Terminal Fragment that produces 50% optimal binding response is 60-360 ng/mL.
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived human Dkk-1 protein
Asp142-His266, with a C-terminal 6-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Predicted Molecular Mass
15 kDa
17-33 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

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Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.


Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage:
  • 12 months from date of receipt, ≤ -20 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, ≤ -20 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
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Background: Dkk-1

Dickkopf related protein 1 (Dkk-1) is the founding member of the Dickkopf family of proteins that includes Dkk-1, -2, -3, -4, and a related protein, Soggy (1, 2). Dkk proteins are secreted proteins that contain two conserved cysteine-rich domains (CRDs), CRD1 (N-terminal) and CRD2 (C-terminal), separated by a linker region. Each domain contains ten cysteine residues (1-3). Mature human Dkk-1 is a 40 kDa glycosylated protein. Within the C-terminal fragment [amino acids (aa) 142-266] that includes the CRD2, human DKK-1 shares 96% amino acid sequence identity with mouse Dkk-1. Dkk-1 antagonizes Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, an activity for which the C-terminal CRD2 is both necessary and sufficient (4, 5), and the C-terminal fragment has been shown to interact with LRP5 or LRP6 (6). However, crystallographic studies have shown that Dkk-1 interacts with LRP-6 as a bipartite inhibitor, with both CRDs binding the extracellular domain of LRP-6 simultaneously (7-9).  Dkk-1/LRP-6/Krm2 complex internalization has been shown to down-regulate Wnt signaling (4, 10). Dkk-1 is expressed throughout development and antagonizes Wnt-7a during limb development (11, 12). Other sites of expression include developing neurons, hair follicles, and the retina (13, 14). The balance between Wnt signaling and Dkk-1 inhibition is critical for bone formation and homeostasis (15). Insufficient or excess Dkk-1 activity in bone results in increased or decreased bone density, respectively (13, 16). In adults, Dkk-1 is expressed in osteoblasts and osteocytes, and neurons. Cerebral ischemia induces Dkk-1 expression, which contributes to neuronal cell death (17). Dkk-1 also likely has a complex role in cancer, as it has been shown to act as a tumor suppressor and also to promote metastasis (6, 18-19).

  1. Krupnik, V.E. et al. (1999) Gene 238:301.
  2. Niehrs, C. (2006) Oncogene 25:7469.
  3. Bullock, C.M. et al. (2004) Mol. Pharmacol. 65:582.
  4. Mao, B. et al. (2001) Nature 411:321.
  5. Brott, B.K. and S.Y. Sokol (2002) Mol. Cell. Biol. 22:6100.
  6. Chen, L. et al. (2013) Mol. Cancer 12:157.
  7. Chen, S. et al. (2011) Dev. Cell 21:848.
  8. Bourhis, E. et al. (2011) Structure 19:1433.
  9. Cheng, Z. et al. (2011) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 18:1204.
  10. Mao, B. et al. (2002) Nature 417:664.
  11. Kemp, C. et al. (2005) Dev. Dyn. 233:1064.
  12. Adamska, M. et al. (2004) Dev. Biol. 272:134.
  13. Li, J. et al. (2006) Bone 39:754.
  14. Verani, R. et al. (2007) J. Neurochem. 100:242.
  15. Pinzone, J.J. et al. (2009) Blood 113:517.
  16. Morvan, F. et al. (2006) J. Bone Miner. Res. 21:934.
  17. Cappuccio, I. et al. (2005) J. Neurosci. 25:2647.
  18. Menezes, M.E. et al. (2012) Int. J. Cancer 130:1477.
  19. Li, S. et al. (2013) PLoS One 8:e84944.
Long Name
Entrez Gene IDs
22943 (Human); 13380 (Mouse); 102123735 (Cynomolgus Monkey)
Alternate Names
dickkopf (Xenopus laevis) homolog 1; dickkopf homolog 1 (Xenopus laevis); dickkopf related protein-1; Dickkopf-1; dickkopf-related protein 1; Dkk1; Dkk-1; hDkk-1; SKdickkopf-1 like


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