Recombinant Human Dkk-1 C-Terminal Fragment Protein, CF Summary
Asp142-His266, with a C-terminal 6-His tag
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||
Dickkopf related protein 1 (Dkk-1) is
the founding member of the Dickkopf family of proteins that includes Dkk-1, -2,
-3, -4, and a related protein, Soggy (1, 2). Dkk proteins are secreted proteins
that contain two conserved cysteine-rich domains (CRDs), CRD1 (N-terminal) and CRD2 (C-terminal), separated by a linker
region. Each domain contains ten cysteine residues (1-3). Mature human Dkk-1 is
a 40 kDa glycosylated protein. Within the
C-terminal fragment [amino acids (aa) 142-266] that includes the CRD2, human DKK-1 shares 96% amino acid sequence identity with mouse Dkk-1. Dkk-1 antagonizes Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, an activity
for which the C-terminal CRD2 is both necessary and sufficient (4, 5), and the C-terminal fragment has
been shown to interact with LRP5 or LRP6 (6).
crystallographic studies have shown that Dkk-1 interacts with LRP-6 as a
bipartite inhibitor, with both CRDs binding the extracellular domain of
simultaneously (7-9). Dkk-1/LRP-6/Krm2 complex
internalization has been shown to down-regulate Wnt signaling (4, 10). Dkk-1 is
expressed throughout development and antagonizes Wnt-7a during limb development
(11, 12). Other sites of expression include developing neurons, hair follicles,
and the retina (13, 14). The balance between Wnt signaling and Dkk-1 inhibition
is critical for bone formation and homeostasis (15). Insufficient or excess
Dkk-1 activity in bone results in increased or decreased bone density,
respectively (13, 16). In adults, Dkk-1 is expressed in osteoblasts and
osteocytes, and neurons. Cerebral ischemia induces Dkk-1 expression, which
contributes to neuronal cell death (17). Dkk-1 also likely has a complex role in
cancer, as it has been shown to act as a tumor suppressor and also to promote
metastasis (6, 18-19).
- Krupnik, V.E. et al. (1999) Gene 238:301.
- Niehrs, C. (2006) Oncogene 25:7469.
- Bullock, C.M. et al. (2004) Mol. Pharmacol. 65:582.
- Mao, B. et al. (2001) Nature 411:321.
- Brott, B.K. and S.Y. Sokol (2002) Mol. Cell. Biol. 22:6100.
- Chen, L. et al. (2013) Mol. Cancer 12:157.
- Chen, S. et al. (2011) Dev. Cell 21:848.
- Bourhis, E. et al. (2011) Structure 19:1433.
- Cheng, Z. et al. (2011) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 18:1204.
- Mao, B. et al. (2002) Nature 417:664.
- Kemp, C. et al. (2005) Dev. Dyn. 233:1064.
- Adamska, M. et al. (2004) Dev. Biol. 272:134.
- Li, J. et al. (2006) Bone 39:754.
- Verani, R. et al. (2007) J. Neurochem. 100:242.
- Pinzone, J.J. et al. (2009) Blood 113:517.
- Morvan, F. et al. (2006) J. Bone Miner. Res. 21:934.
- Cappuccio, I. et al. (2005) J. Neurosci. 25:2647.
- Menezes, M.E. et al. (2012) Int. J. Cancer 130:1477.
- Li, S. et al. (2013) PLoS One 8:e84944.
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