Recombinant Human IL-15 Protein

Formulations:
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
247-ILB-005
247-ILB-025
Recombinant Human IL-15 Protein Bioactivity
2 Images
Product Details
Citations (73)
FAQs
Reviews (1)

Recombinant Human IL-15 Protein Summary

Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE with silver staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured in a cell proliferation assay using MO7e human megakaryocytic leukemic cells. The ED50 for this effect is 0.3-2.6 ng/mL.
The specific activity of Recombinant Human IL-15 is approximately 4.5 x 105 U/μg, which is calibrated against recombinant human IL-15 WHO International Standard (NIBSC code: 95/554).
Source
E. coli-derived human IL-15 protein
Asn49-Ser162
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Asn49
Predicted Molecular Mass
13 kDa
SDS-PAGE
10 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

247-ILB

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

247-ILB/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Data Images

Bioactivity Recombinant Human IL-15 Protein Bioactivity View Larger

Recombinant Human IL-15 (Catalog #
247-ILB) stimulates cell proliferation in the MO7e human megakaryocytic leukemic cell line. The ED50 for this effect is 0.3-2.6 ng/mL.

SDS-PAGE Recombinant Human IL-15 Protein SDS-PAGE View Larger

1 µg/lane of Recombinant Human IL-15 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a major band at 10 kDa.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

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Background: IL-15

Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a widely expressed 14 kDa cytokine that is structurally and functionally related to IL-2 and plays an important role in many immunological diseases (1, 2). Mature human IL-15 shares 70% amino acid sequence identity with mouse and rat IL-15. Alternative splicing generates isoforms of IL-15 with either a long or short signal peptide (LSP or SSP), and the SSP isoform is retained intracellularly (3). IL-15 binds with high affinity to IL-15 R alpha (4). It binds with lower affinity to a complex of IL-2 R beta and the common gamma chain ( gamma c) which are also subunits of the IL-2 receptor complex (5). IL-15 associates with IL-15 R alpha in the endoplasmic reticulum, and this complex is expressed on the cell surface (6). The dominant mechanism of IL-15 action is known as transpresentation in which IL-15 and IL-15 R alpha are coordinately expressed on the surface of one cell and interact with complexes of IL-2 R beta / gamma c on adjacent cells (7). This enables cells to respond to IL-15 even if they do not express IL-15 R alpha (6). In human and mouse, soluble IL-15-binding forms of IL-15 R alpha can be generated by proteolytic shedding and bind up nearly all the IL-15 in circulation (8-10). Soluble IL-15 R alpha functions as an inhibitor that limits IL-15 action (4, 9). Ligation of membrane-associated IL-15/IL-15 R alpha complexes also induces reverse signaling that promotes activation of the IL-15/IL-15 R alpha expressing cells (11). IL-15 induces or enhances the differentiation, maintenance, or activation of multiple T cell subsets including NK, NKT, Th17, Treg, and CD8+ memory cells (12 - 16). An important component of these functions is the ability of
IL-15 to induce dendritic cell differentiation and inflammatory activation (11, 14). IL-15 exhibits anti-tumor activity independent of its actions on NK cells or CD8+ T cells (17). It also inhibits the deposition of lipid in adipocytes, and its circulating levels are decreased in obesity (18).

References
  1. De Sabatino, A. et al. (2011) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 22:19.
  2. Grabstein, K. et al. (1994) Science 264:965.
  3. Tagaya, Y. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:14444.
  4. Giri, J.G. et al. (1995) EMBO J. 14:3654.
  5. Giri, J. et al. (1994) EMBO J. 13:2822.
  6. Dubois, S. et al. (2002) Immunity 17:537.
  7. Castillo, E.F. and K.S. Schluns (2012) Cytokine 59:479.
  8. Budagian, V. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279:40368.
  9. Mortier, E. et al. (2004) J. Immunol. 173:1681.
  10. Bergamaschi, C. et al. (2012) Blood 120:e1.
  11. Budagian, V. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279:42192.
  12. Mortier, E. et al. (2003) J. Exp. Med. 205:1213.
  13. Gordy, L.E. et al. (2011) J. Immunol. 187:6335.
  14. Harris, K.M. (2011) J. Leukoc. Biol. 90:727.
  15. Xia, J. et al. (2010) Clin. Immunol. 134:130.
  16. Schluns, K.S. et al. (2002) J. Immunol. 168:4827.
  17. Davies, E. et al. (2010) J. Leukoc. Biol. 88:529.
  18. Barra, N.G. et al. (2010) Obesity 18:1601.
Long Name
Interleukin 15
Entrez Gene IDs
3600 (Human); 16168 (Mouse); 25670 (Rat); 493682 (Feline)
Alternate Names
IL15; IL-15; IL-15MGC9721; interleukin 15; interleukin-15

Citations for Recombinant Human IL-15 Protein

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

73 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Nonstimulatory peptide-MHC enhances human T-cell antigen-specific responses by amplifying proximal TCR signaling
    Authors: X Zhao, S Sankaran, J Yap, CT Too, ZZ Ho, G Dolton, M Legut, EC Ren, AK Sewell, A Bertoletti, PA MacAry, J Brzostek, NRJ Gascoigne
    Nat Commun, 2018;9(1):2716.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. Survivin-specific T cell receptor targets tumor but not T cells.
    Authors: Arber C, Feng X, Abhyankar H, Romero E, Wu M, Heslop H, Barth P, Dotti G, Savoldo B
    J Clin Invest, 2015;125(1):157-68.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. Mature cytotoxic CD56(bright)/CD16(+) natural killer cells can infiltrate lymph nodes adjacent to metastatic melanoma.
    Cancer Res, 2015;74(0):81.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. The natural killer cell dysfunction of aged mice is due to the bone marrow stroma and is not restored by IL-15/IL-15Ralpha treatment.
    Authors: Nair S, Fang M, Sigal L
    Aging Cell, 2015;14(2):180-90.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types:
    Applications: In Vivo
  5. Ex vivo cytosolic delivery of functional macromolecules to immune cells.
    Authors: Sharei A, Trifonova R, Jhunjhunwala S, Hartoularos G, Eyerman A, Lytton-Jean A, Angin M, Sharma S, Poceviciute R, Mao S, Heimann M, Liu S, Talkar T, Khan O, Addo M, von Andrian U, Anderson D, Langer R, Lieberman J, Jensen K
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(4):e0118803.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  6. IRF-1 promotes liver transplant ischemia/reperfusion injury via hepatocyte IL-15/IL-15Ralpha production.
    Authors: Yokota S, Yoshida O, Dou L, Spadaro A, Isse K, Ross M, Stolz D, Kimura S, Du Q, Demetris A, Thomson A, Geller D
    J Immunol, 2015;194(12):6045-56.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  7. Broadly-specific cytotoxic T cells targeting multiple HIV antigens are expanded from HIV+ patients: implications for immunotherapy.
    Authors: Lam, Sharon, Sung, Julia, Cruz, Conrad, Castillo-Caro, Paul, Ngo, Minhtran, Garrido, Carolina, Kuruc, Joann, Archin, Nancie, Rooney, Cliona, Margolis, David, Bollard, Catherin
    Mol Ther, 2015;23(2):387-95.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. TLR-9 and IL-15 Synergy Promotes the In Vitro Clonal Expansion of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells.
    Authors: Mongini P, Gupta R, Boyle E, Nieto J, Lee H, Stein J, Bandovic J, Stankovic T, Barrientos J, Kolitz J, Allen S, Rai K, Chu C, Chiorazzi N
    J Immunol, 2015;195(3):901-23.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  9. IL-15 amplifies the pathogenic properties of CD4+CD28- T cells in multiple sclerosis.
    Authors: Broux B, Mizee M, Vanheusden M, van der Pol S, van Horssen J, Van Wijmeersch B, Somers V, de Vries H, Stinissen P, Hellings N
    J Immunol, 2015;194(5):2099-109.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. CD8+ T cells are activated in an antigen-independent manner in HIV-infected individuals.
    Authors: Bastidas S, Graw F, Smith M, Kuster H, Gunthard H, Oxenius A
    J Immunol, 2014;192(4):1732-44.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  11. B-cell receptor pathway inhibitors affect CD20 levels and impair antitumor activity of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies.
    Authors: Bojarczuk K, Siernicka M, Dwojak M, Bobrowicz M, Pyrzynska B, Gaj P, Karp M, Giannopoulos K, Efremov D, Fauriat C, Golab J, Winiarska M
    Leukemia, 2014;28(5):1163-7.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  12. Extracellular HCV-core protein induces an immature regulatory phenotype in NK cells: implications for outcome of acute infection.
    Authors: Golden-Mason L, Hahn Y, Strong M, Cheng L, Rosen H
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(7):e103219.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  13. Wilms' Tumour 1 (WT1) peptide vaccination in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia induces short-lived WT1-specific immune responses.
    Authors: Uttenthal B, Martinez-Davila I, Ivey A, Craddock C, Chen F, Virchis A, Kottaridis P, Grimwade D, Khwaja A, Stauss H, Morris E
    Br J Haematol, 2014;164(3):366-75.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  14. Nanoparticle-mediated combinatorial targeting of multiple human dendritic cell (DC) subsets leads to enhanced T cell activation via IL-15-dependent DC crosstalk.
    Authors: Sehgal K, Ragheb R, Fahmy T, Dhodapkar M, Dhodapkar K
    J Immunol, 2014;193(5):2297-305.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  15. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin links keratinocytes and dendritic cell-derived IL-23 in patients with psoriasis.
    Authors: Volpe E, Pattarini L, Martinez-Cingolani C, Meller S, Donnadieu M, Bogiatzi S, Fernandez M, Touzot M, Bichet J, Reyal F, Paronetto M, Chiricozzi A, Chimenti S, Nasorri F, Cavani A, Kislat A, Homey B, Soumelis V
    J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2014;134(2):373-81.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  16. Reversal of tumor immune inhibition using a chimeric cytokine receptor.
    Authors: Leen A, Sukumaran S, Watanabe N, Mohammed S, Keirnan J, Yanagisawa R, Anurathapan U, Rendon D, Heslop H, Rooney C, Brenner M, Vera J
    Mol Ther, 2014;22(6):1211-20.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  17. Regulation of CD4(+)NKG2D(+) Th1 cells in patients with metastatic melanoma treated with sorafenib: role of IL-15Ralpha and NKG2D triggering.
    Authors: Romero A, Chaput N, Poirier-Colame V, Rusakiewicz S, Jacquelot N, Chaba K, Mortier E, Jacques Y, Caillat-Zucman S, Flament C, Caignard A, Messaoudene M, Auperin A, Vielh P, Dessen P, Porta C, Mateus C, Ayyoub M, Valmori D, Eggermont A, Robert C, Zitvogel L
    Cancer Res, 2014;74(1):68-80.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  18. Human AdV-specific T cells: persisting in vitro functionality despite lethal irradiation.
    Authors: Geyeregger R, Freimuller C, Stemberger J, Fischer G, Witt V, Fritsch G
    Bone Marrow Transplant, 2014;49(7):934-41.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  19. Tumor-activated TCRgammadelta(+) T cells from gastric cancer patients induce the antitumor immune response of TCRalphabeta(+) T cells via their antigen-presenting cell-like effects.
    Authors: Mao C, Mou X, Zhou Y, Yuan G, Xu C, Liu H, Zheng T, Tong J, Wang S, Chen D
    J Immunol Res, 2014;2014(0):593562.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  20. Hypercytotoxicity and rapid loss of NKp44+ innate lymphoid cells during acute SIV infection.
    Authors: Li H, Richert-Spuhler L, Evans T, Gillis J, Connole M, Estes J, Keele B, Klatt N, Reeves R
    PLoS Pathog, 2014;10(12):e1004551.
    Species: Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  21. IL-15 prolongs CD154 expression on human CD4 T cells via STAT5 binding to the CD154 transcriptional promoter.
    Authors: Lowe R, Genin A, Orgun N, Cron R
    Genes Immun, 2014;15(3):137-44.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  22. Building and optimizing a virus-specific T cell receptor library for targeted immunotherapy in viral infections.
    Authors: Banu, Nasirah, Chia, Adeline, Ho, Zi Zong, Garcia, Alfonso, Paravasivam, Komathi, Grotenbreg, Gijsbert, Bertoletti, Antonio, Gehring, Adam J
    Sci Rep, 2014;4(0):4166.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  23. The IL-23/Th17 axis is involved in the adaptive immune response to Bacillus anthracis in humans.
    Authors: Harris K, Ramachandran G, Basu S, Rollins S, Mann D, Cross A
    Eur J Immunol, 2014;44(3):752-62.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  24. Defective expression of scavenger receptors in celiac disease mucosa.
    Authors: Cupi M, Sarra M, De Nitto D, Franze E, Marafini I, Monteleone I, Del Vecchio Blanco G, Paoluzi O, Di Fusco D, Gentileschi P, Ortenzi A, Colantoni A, Pallone F, Monteleone G
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(6):e100980.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  25. Concurrent interaction of DCs with CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells improves secondary CTL expansion: It takes three to tango.
    Authors: Hoyer S, Prommersberger S, Pfeiffer I, Schuler-Thurner B, Schuler G, Dorrie J, Schaft N
    Eur J Immunol, 2014;44(12):3543-59.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  26. The microenvironment of human neuroblastoma supports the activation of tumor-associated T lymphocytes.
    Authors: Carlson L, De Geer A, Sveinbjornsson B, Orrego A, Martinsson T, Kogner P, Levitskaya J
    Oncoimmunology, 2013;2(3):e23618.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  27. Loss of methylation at the IFNG promoter and CNS-1 is associated with the development of functional IFN-gamma memory in human CD4(+) T lymphocytes.
    Authors: Dong J, Chang H, Ivascu C, Qian Y, Rezai S, Okhrimenko A, Cosmi L, Maggi L, Eckhardt F, Wu P, Sieper J, Alexander T, Annunziato F, Gossen M, Li J, Radbruch A, Thiel A
    Eur J Immunol, 2013;43(3):793-804.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  28. Immunoregulatory pathways are active in the small intestinal mucosa of patients with potential celiac disease.
    Authors: Borrelli M, Salvati V, Maglio M, Zanzi D, Ferrara K, Santagata S, Ponticelli D, Aitoro R, Mazzarella G, Lania G, Gianfrani C, Auricchio R, Troncone R
    Am J Gastroenterol, 2013;108(11):1775-84.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  29. CCR5 is a receptor for Staphylococcus aureus leukotoxin ED.
    Authors: Alonzo, Francis, Kozhaya, Lina, Rawlings, Stephen, Reyes-Robles, Tamara, DuMont, Ashley L, Myszka, David G, Landau, Nathanie, Unutmaz, Derya, Torres, Victor J
    Nature, 2013;493(7430):51-5.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Cell Culture Substrate
  30. IL-15 positively regulates IL-21 production in celiac disease mucosa.
    Authors: Sarra M, Cupi M, Monteleone I, Franze E, Ronchetti G, Di Sabatino A, Gentileschi P, Franceschilli L, Sileri P, Sica G, Del Vecchio Blanco G, Cretella M, Paoluzi O, Corazza G, Pallone F, Monteleone G
    Mucosal Immunol, 2013;6(2):244-55.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  31. PaCS is a novel cytoplasmic structure containing functional proteasome and inducible by cytokines/trophic factors.
    Authors: Sommi, Patrizia, Necchi, Vittorio, Vitali, Agostina, Montagna, Daniela, De Luigi, Ada, Salmona, Mario, Ricci, Vittorio, Solcia, Enrico
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(12):e82560.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Cell Culture Substrate
  32. GITR-dependent regulation of 4-1BB expression: implications for T cell memory and anti-4-1BB-induced pathology.
    Authors: Lin G, Snell L, Wortzman M, Clouthier D, Watts T
    J Immunol, 2013;190(9):4627-39.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  33. Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) sequentially shapes the NK cell repertoire during the course of asymptomatic infection and Kaposi sarcoma.
    Authors: Dupuy S, Lambert M, Zucman D, Choukem SP, Tognarelli S, Pages C, Lebbe C, Caillat-Zucman S
    PLoS Pathog., 2012;8(1):e1002486.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  34. The canonical Wnt pathway shapes niches supportive of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.
    Authors: Ichii, Michiko, Frank, Mark Bar, Iozzo, Renato V, Kincade, Paul W
    Blood, 2012;119(7):1683-92.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  35. Antigen-independent induction of Tim-3 expression on human T cells by the common gamma-chain cytokines IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 is associated with proliferation and is dependent on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway.
    Authors: Mujib S, Jones RB, Lo C, Aidarus N, Clayton K, Sakhdari A, Benko E, Kovacs C, Ostrowski MA
    J. Immunol., 2012;188(8):3745-56.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  36. 2-deoxy D-glucose prevents cell surface expression of NKG2D ligands through inhibition of N-linked glycosylation.
    Authors: Andresen L, Skovbakke SL, Persson G, Hagemann-Jensen M, Hansen KA, Jensen H, Skov S
    J. Immunol., 2012;188(4):1847-55.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  37. Human breast cancer cells enhance self tolerance by promoting evasion from NK cell antitumor immunity.
    Authors: Mamessier E, Sylvain A, Thibult ML, Houvenaeghel G, Jacquemier J, Castellano R, Goncalves A, Andre P, Romagne F, Thibault G, Viens P, Birnbaum D, Bertucci F, Moretta A, Olive D
    J. Clin. Invest., 2011;121(9):3609-22.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  38. IL-17-producing invariant NKT cells in lymphoid organs are recent thymic emigrants identified by neuropilin-1 expression.
    Authors: Milpied P, Massot B, Renand A, Diem S, Herbelin A, Leite-de-Moraes M, Rubio MT, Hermine O
    Blood, 2011;118(11):2993-3002.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  39. Barley as a green factory for the production of functional Flt3 ligand.
    Authors: Erlendsson LS, Muench MO, Hellman U, Hrafnkelsdottir SM, Jonsson A, Balmer Y, Mantyla E, Orvar BL
    Biotechnol J, 2010;5(2):163-71.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  40. Natural killer cell-mediated cytokine response among HIV-positive south Indians with pulmonary tuberculosis.
    Authors: Ramana Rao PV, Rajasekaran S, Raja A
    J. Interferon Cytokine Res., 2010;30(1):33-42.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  41. CCR2 identifies a stable population of human effector memory CD4+ T cells equipped for rapid recall response.
    Authors: Zhang HH, Song K, Rabin RL, Hill BJ, Perfetto SP, Roederer M, Douek DC, Siegel RM, Farber JM
    J. Immunol., 2010;185(11):6646-63.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  42. Interferon-gamma reverses the immunosuppressive and protumoral properties and prevents the generation of human tumor-associated macrophages.
    Authors: Duluc D, Corvaisier M, Blanchard S, Catala L, Descamps P, Gamelin E, Ponsoda S, Delneste Y, Hebbar M, Jeannin P
    Int. J. Cancer, 2009;125(2):367-73.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  43. EBV-associated mononucleosis does not induce long-term global deficit in T-cell responsiveness to IL-15.
    Authors: Giron-Michel J, Menard F, Negrini S, Devocelle A, Azzarone B, Besson C
    Blood, 2009;113(19):4541-7.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  44. Interleukin-17 and interferon-gamma are produced concomitantly by human coronary artery-infiltrating T cells and act synergistically on vascular smooth muscle cells.
    Authors: Eid RE, Rao DA, Zhou J, Lo SF, Ranjbaran H, Gallo A, Sokol SI, Pfau S, Pober JS, Tellides G
    Circulation, 2009;119(10):1424-32.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  45. Dermatan sulfate proteoglycan biglycan as a potential selectin L/CD44 ligand involved in selective recruitment of peripheral blood CD16(-) natural killer cells into human endometrium.
    Authors: Kitaya K, Yasuo T
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2009;85(3):391-400.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  46. Development of functional human NK cells in an immunodeficient mouse model with the ability to provide protection against tumor challenge.
    Authors: Kwant-Mitchell A, Pek EA, Rosenthal KL
    PLoS ONE, 2009;4(12):e8379.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  47. Mouse fetal and embryonic liver cells differentiate human umbilical cord blood progenitors into CD56-negative natural killer cell precursors in the absence of interleukin-15.
    Authors: McCullar V, Oostendorp R, Panoskaltsis-Mortari A, Yun G, Lutz CT, Wagner JE, Miller JS
    Exp. Hematol., 2008;36(5):598-608.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  48. CD27 defines phenotypically and functionally different human NK cell subsets.
    Authors: Vossen MT, Matmati M, Hertoghs KM, Baars PA, Gent MR, Leclercq G, Hamann J, Kuijpers TW, van Lier RA
    J. Immunol., 2008;180(6):3739-45.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  49. Soluble Interleukin IL-15Ralpha is generated by alternative splicing or proteolytic cleavage and forms functional complexes with IL-15.
    Authors: Bulanova E, Budagian V, Duitman E, Orinska Z, Krause H, Ruckert R, Reiling N, Bulfone-Paus S
    J. Biol. Chem., 2007;282(18):13167-79.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  50. Effect of serum content and diluent selection on assay sensitivity and signal intensity in multiplex bead-based immunoassays.
    Authors: Pfleger C, Schloot N, ter Veld F
    J. Immunol. Methods, 2007;329(1):214-8.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: ELISA Standard
  51. Abnormal activation and cytokine spectra in lymph nodes of people chronically infected with HIV-1.
    Authors: Biancotto A, Grivel JC, Iglehart SJ, Vanpouille C, Lisco A, Sieg SF, Debernardo R, Garate K, Rodriguez B, Margolis LB, Lederman MM
    Blood, 2007;109(10):4272-9.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: ELISA Standard
  52. Activating and inhibitory receptors on synovial fluid natural killer cells of arthritis patients: role of CD94/NKG2A in control of cytokine secretion.
    Authors: de Matos CT, Berg L, Michaelsson J, Fellander-Tsai L, Karre K, Soderstrom K
    Immunology, 2007;122(2):291-301.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  53. A novel bispecific protein (ULBP2-BB4) targeting the NKG2D receptor on natural killer (NK) cells and CD138 activates NK cells and has potent antitumor activity against human multiple myeloma in vitro and in vivo.
    Authors: von Strandmann EP, Hansen HP, Reiners KS, Schnell R, Borchmann P, Merkert S, Simhadri VR, Draube A, Reiser M, Purr I, Hallek M, Engert A
    Blood, 2006;107(5):1955-62.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  54. Human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes keep TNF alpha levels low by cell uptake and feedback inhibition of transcription.
    Authors: Ebert EC, Mehta V
    Cell. Immunol., 2006;241(1):7-13.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  55. Familial NK cell deficiency associated with impaired IL-2- and IL-15-dependent survival of lymphocytes.
    Authors: Eidenschenk C, Jouanguy E, Alcais A, Mention JJ, Pasquier B, Fleckenstein IM, Puel A, Gineau L, Carel JC, Vivier E, Le Deist F, Casanova JL
    J. Immunol., 2006;177(12):8835-43.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  56. The majority of human peripheral blood CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells bear functional skin-homing receptors.
    Authors: Hirahara K, Liu L, Clark RA, Yamanaka K, Fuhlbrigge RC, Kupper TS
    J. Immunol., 2006;177(7):4488-94.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: Bioassay
  57. Bovine splenic NK cells synthesize IFN-gamma in response to IL-12-containing supernatants from Babesia bovis-exposed monocyte cultures.
    Authors: Goff WL, Storset AK, Johnson WC, Brown WC
    Parasite Immunol., 2006;28(5):221-8.
    Species: Bovine
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  58. Human plasmacytoid predendritic cells activate NK cells through glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-ligand (GITRL).
    Authors: Hanabuchi S, Watanabe N, Wang YH, Ito T, Shaw J, Cao W, Qin FX, Liu YJ
    Blood, 2006;107(9):3617-23.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  59. Transforming growth factor beta 1(TGF-beta1) down-regulates TNFalpha-induced RANTES production in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts through NF-kappaB-mediated transcriptional repression.
    Authors: Cho ML, Min SY, Chang SH, Kim KW, Heo SB, Lee SH, Park SH, Cho CS, Kim HY
    Immunol. Lett., 2006;105(2):159-66.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  60. Dendritic cells induce MUC1 expression and polarization on human T cells by an IL-7-dependent mechanism.
    Authors: Vasir B, Avigan D, Wu Z, Crawford K, Turnquist S, Ren J, Kufe D
    J. Immunol., 2005;174(4):2376-86.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  61. Renal cells express a functional interleukin-15 receptor.
    Authors: Tejman-Yarden N, Zlotnik M, Lewis E, Etzion O, Chaimovitz C, Douvdevani A
    Nephrol. Dial. Transplant., 2005;20(3):516-23.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: WB Ctrl
  62. IL-21 sustains CD28 expression on IL-15-activated human naive CD8+ T cells.
    Authors: Alves NL, Arosa FA, van Lier RA
    J. Immunol., 2005;175(2):755-62.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  63. The JAK3 inhibitor CP-690550 selectively reduces NK and CD8+ cell numbers in cynomolgus monkey blood following chronic oral dosing.
    Authors: Conklyn M, Andresen C, Changelian P, Kudlacz E
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2004;76(6):1248-55.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  64. Growth and apoptosis of human natural killer cell neoplasms: role of interleukin-2/15 signaling.
    Authors: Yamasaki S, Maeda M, Ohshima K, Kikuchi M, Otsuka T, Harada M
    Leuk. Res., 2004;28(10):1023-31.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  65. IL-21 induces the functional maturation of murine NK cells.
    Authors: Brady J, Hayakawa Y, Smyth MJ, Nutt SL
    J. Immunol., 2004;172(4):2048-58.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  66. Expression and activity of IL-17 in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome).
    Authors: Ciree A, Michel L, Camilleri-Broet S, Jean Louis F, Oster M, Flageul B, Senet P, Fossiez F, Fridman WH, Tartour E
    Int. J. Cancer, 2004;112(1):113-20.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  67. IL-17 markedly up-regulates beta-defensin-2 expression in human airway epithelium via JAK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways.
    Authors: Kao CY, Chen Y, Thai P, Wachi S, Huang F, Kim C, Harper RW, Wu R
    J. Immunol., 2004;173(5):3482-91.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  68. Stimulation of T cell autoreactivity by anomalous expression of NKG2D and its MIC ligands in rheumatoid arthritis.
    Authors: Groh V, Bruhl A, El-Gabalawy H, Nelson JL, Spies T
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2003;100(16):9452-7.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  69. Use of interleukin 15 to enhance interferon-gamma production by antigen-specific stimulated lymphocytes from rhesus macaques.
    Authors: Calarota SA, Otero M, Hermanstayne K, Lewis M, Rosati M, Felber BK, Pavlakis GN, Boyer JD, Weiner DB
    J. Immunol. Methods, 2003;279(1):55-67.
    Species: Primate - Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  70. Regulation of CCR5 expression and MIP-1alpha production in CD4+ T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
    Authors: Wang CR, Liu MF
    Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2003;132(2):371-8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  71. Decreased IL-15 may contribute to elevated IgE and acute inflammation in atopic dermatitis.
    Authors: Ong PY, Hamid QA, Travers JB, Strickland I, Al Kerithy M, Boguniewicz M, Leung DY
    J. Immunol., 2002;168(1):505-10.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  72. Human amniotic fluid lacks interleukin-2 and interleukin-15 but can interact with the beta-chain of the interleukin-2 receptor.
    Authors: Searle RF, Bromage SJ, Palmer J, Curry JE, Lang AK
    Immunology, 2000;99(3):411-7.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: N/A
    Applications: ELISA Standard
  73. Restoration of cytotoxic T lymphocyte function in malignant pleural effusion: interleukin-15 vs. interleukin-2.
    Authors: Chen YM, Ting CC, Peng JW, Yang WK, Yang KY, Tsai CM, Perng RP
    J. Interferon Cytokine Res., 2000;20(1):31-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay

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Recombinant Human IL-15 Protein
By Anonymous on 11/20/2017
Application: Immunoassay Standard

The IL15 protein was used as a control and standard for an ELISA using MAB647 and BAM247 as the matched pair.