Recombinant Human IL-21 Animal Free Protein
Recombinant Human IL-21 Animal Free Protein Summary
Gln32-Ser162, with a N-terminal Met
Produced in an animal-free laboratory.
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CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Animal-Free™ Recombinant Human IL-21 (Catalog # AFL8879) enhances IFN-gamma secretion in NK-92 human natural killer lymphoma cells. The ED50 for this effect is ≤8 ng/mL.
2 μg/lane of Animal-Free™ Recombinant Human IL-21 (Catalog # AFL8879) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Blue staining, showing R band at 16.4 kDa and NR band at 14.8 kDa, respectively.
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is an approximately 14 kDa four-helix-bundle member of the family of cytokines that utilize the common gamma chain ( gamma c) as a receptor subunit. gamma c is also a subunit of the receptors for IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15 (1). IL-21 is produced by activated T follicular helper cells (Tfh), Th17 cells, and NKT cells (2-6). It exerts its biological effects through a heterodimeric receptor complex of gamma c and the IL-21-specific IL-21 R (2, 7). Tfh-derived IL-21 plays an important role in the development of humoral immunity through its autocrine effects on the Tfh cell and paracrine effects on immunoglobulin affinity maturation, plasma cell differentiation, and B cell memory responses (4, 8, 9). It is also required for the migration of dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes (10). IL-21 regulates several aspects of T cell function. It co-stimulates the activation, proliferation, and survival of CD8+ T cells and NKT cells and promotes Th17 cell polarization (3, 5, 6, 11, 12). It blocks the generation of regulatory T cells and their suppressive effects on CD4+ T cells (13, 14). IL-21 R engagement enhances the cytolytic activity and IFN-gamma production of activated NK cells but limits the expansion of resting NK cells (15). In addition, IL-21 suppresses cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions by limiting allergen-specific IgE production and mast cell degranulation (16). Dysregulation of the IL-21/IL-21 R system contributes to the development of multiple immunological disorders (1, 17). The 133 amino acid (aa) mature human IL-21 shares 63% and 61% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat IL-21, respectively. Alternative splicing generates an additional isoform with a substitution of the C-terminal 16 amino acids (18).
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Manufacturing SpecificationsAnimal-Free Manufacturing Conditions
Our dedicated controlled-access animal-free laboratories ensure that at no point in production are the products exposed to potential contamination by animal components or byproducts. Every stage of manufacturing is conducted in compliance with R&D Systems' stringent Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Production and purification procedures use equipment and media that are confirmed animal-free.
- All molecular biology procedures use animal-free media and dedicated labware.
- Dedicated fermentors are utilized in committed animal-free areas.
- Protein purification columns are animal-free.
- Bulk proteins are filtered using animal-free filters.
- Purified proteins are stored in animal-free containers in a dedicated cold storage room.
- Low Endotoxin Level.
- No impairment of biological activity.
- High quality product obtained under stringent conditions.
- For ex vivo research or bioproduction, additional documentation can be provided.
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