Recombinant Human IL-21 GMP Protein, CF Summary
Gln32-Ser162, with a N-terminal Met
Produced in an animal-free laboratory. Manufactured and tested under cGMP guidelines
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 100-200 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
GMP-grade Recombinant Human IL-21 (Catalog # 8879‑GMP) enhances IFN-gamma secretion in NK-92 human natural killer lymphoma cells. The ED50 for this effect is ≤8 ng/mL. Three independent lots were tested for activity and plotted on the same graph to show lot-to-lot consistency of GMP IL-21.
2 μg/lane of GMP-grade Recombinant Human IL-21 (Catalog # 8879-GMP) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Blue staining, showing R band at 16.4 kDa and NR band at 14.8 kDa, respectively.
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is an approximately 14 kDa four-helix-bundle member of the family of cytokines that utilize the common gamma chain ( gamma c) as a receptor subunit. gamma c is also a subunit of the receptors for IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15 (1). IL-21 is produced by activated T follicular helper cells (Tfh), Th17 cells, and NKT cells (2-6). It exerts its biological effects through a heterodimeric receptor complex of gamma c and the IL-21-specific IL-21 R (2, 7). Tfh-derived IL-21 plays an important role in the development of humoral immunity through its autocrine effects on the Tfh cell and paracrine effects on immunoglobulin affinity maturation, plasma cell differentiation, and B cell memory responses (4, 8, 9). It is also required for the migration of dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes (10). IL-21 regulates several aspects of T cell function. It co-stimulates the activation, proliferation, and survival of CD8+ T cells and NKT cells and promotes Th17 cell polarization (3, 5, 6, 11, 12). It blocks the generation of regulatory T cells and their suppressive effects on CD4+ T cells (13, 14). IL-21 R engagement enhances the cytolytic activity and IFN-gamma production of activated NK cells but limits the expansion of resting NK cells (15). In addition, IL-21 suppresses cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions by limiting allergen-specific IgE production and mast cell degranulation (16). Dysregulation of the IL-21/IL-21 R system contributes to the development of multiple immunological disorders (1, 17). The 133 amino acid (aa) mature human IL-21 shares 63% and 61% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat IL-21, respectively. Alternative splicing generates an additional isoform with a substitution of the C-terminal 16 amino acids (18).
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- Korn, T. et al. (2007) Nature 448:484.
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- Yi, J.S., et al. (2009) Science 324:1572.
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- Kasaian, M.T. et al. (2002) Immunity 16:559.
- Tamagawa-Mineoka, R. et al. (2011) J. Invest. Dermatol. 131:1513.
- Ma, J. et al. (2011) Cytokine 56:133.
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Manufacturing SpecificationsGMP Proteins
R&D Systems, a Bio-Techne Brand's GMP proteins are produced according to relevant sections of the following documents: WHO TRS, No. 822, 1992 Annex 1, Good Manufacturing Practices for Biological Products; USP Chapter 1043, Ancillary Materials for Cell, Gene and Tissue-Engineered Products and USP Chapter 92, Growth Factors and Cytokines Used in Cell Therapy Manufacturing.
R&D Systems' quality focus includes:
- Manufactured and tested under an ISO 9001:2015 and ISO 13485:2016 certified quality system
- Documented processes and QA control of documentation and process changes
- Personnel training programs
- Raw material testing and vendor qualification/monitoring
- Fully validated equipment, processes and test methods
- Equipment calibration schedules using a computerized calibration program
- Facility maintenance, safety programs and pest control
- Material review process for variances
- Monitoring of stability over product shelf-life
R&D Systems strives to provide our customers with the analytical characteristics of each product so that customers may determine whether our products are appropriate for their research. The Certificate of Analysis provided contains the following lot specific information:
- N-terminal amino acid analysis, SDS-PAGE analysis, and endotoxin level (as determined by LAL assay) performed on each bulk QC lot, not on individual bottlings of each QC lot
- Post-bottling lot-specific bioassay results (compliance with an established range) and results of microbial testing according to USP
- Host Cell Protein testing performed by ELISA
- Mycoplasma testing by ribosomal RNA hybridization assay
Additional testing and documentation requested by the customer can be arranged at an additional cost.
Production records and facilities are available for examination by appropriate personnel on-site at R&D Systems in Minneapolis, Minnesota USA.
R&D Systems sells GMP grade products for preclinical or clinical ex vivo cell therapy applications. They are not for in vivo use. Please read the following End User Terms prior to using this product.
Animal-Free Manufacturing Conditions
Our dedicated controlled-access animal-free laboratories ensure that at no point in production are the products exposed to potential contamination by animal components or byproducts. Every stage of manufacturing is conducted in compliance with R&D Systems' stringent Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Production and purification procedures use equipment and media that are confirmed animal-free.
- All molecular biology procedures use animal-free media and dedicated labware.
- Dedicated fermentors are utilized in committed animal-free areas.
- Protein purification columns are animal-free.
- Bulk proteins are filtered using animal-free filters.
- Purified proteins are stored in animal-free containers in a dedicated cold storage room.
- Low Endotoxin Level.
- No impairment of biological activity.
- High quality product obtained under stringent conditions.
Product Specific Notices
The End User is aware that R&D Systems, Inc. sells GMP products for preclinical or clinical ex vivo use and not for in vivo use. The End User further agrees, as a condition of the sale of R&D Systems' GMP products that: a) the End User will not use this GMP Product in any procedure wherein the product may be directly or indirectly administered to humans, unless the End User has obtained, or prior to their use will have obtained, an Investigational New Drug (IND) exemption from the FDA and will use the product only in accordance with the protocols of such IND and of the Institutional Review Board overseeing the proposed research, or b) the End User will use the products outside of the United States in accordance with the protocols of research approved by the Institutional Review Board or authorized ethics committee and regulatory agencies to which the End User is subject to in their territory.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS
The following limitation applies to R&D Systems' warranty and liability for damages: All products are warranted to meet R&D Systems' published specifications when used under normal laboratory conditions.
R&D SYSTEMS DOES NOT MAKE ANY OTHER WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO ITS PRODUCTS. IN PARTICULAR, R&D SYSTEMS DOES NOT MAKE ANY WARRANTY OF SUITABILITY, NONINFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
NOTWITHSTANDING ANY OTHER PROVISIONS OF THESE TERMS AND/OR ANY OTHER AGREEMENT BETWEEN R&D SYSTEMS AND PURCHASER FOR THE PURCHASE OF THE PRODUCTS, R&D SYSTEMS' TOTAL LIABILITY TO PURCHASER ARISING FROM OR IN RELATION TO THESE TERMS, AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE PARTIES OR THE PRODUCTS, WHETHER ARISING IN CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE SHALL BE LIMITED TO THE TOTAL AMOUNT PAID BY PURCHASER TO R&D SYSTEMS FOR THE APPLICABLE PRODUCTS. IN NO EVENT WILL R&D SYSTEMS BE LIABLE FOR THE COST OF PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS.
Full details of R&D Systems' Terms and Conditions of Sale can be found online at: RnDSystems.com/Legal.
What are the units of activity for Recombinant Human IL-21 GMP Protein, CF GMP (Catalog # 8879-GMP)?
Currently, no NIBSC reference standard is available for human IL-21, so we do not have a unit conversion factor available for Recombinant Human IL-21 GMP Protein, CF GMP (Catalog # 8879-GMP). We recommend checking the Citations tab on the product-specific page to review publications citing use of the product. We would also recommend peforming a dose-response study for your assay to determine the optimal concentration for your experiment. If you need additional assistance determining how to use the protein in your application, please contact Technical Support.
Animal-Free Recombinant Proteins
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