Recombinant Human LAP (TGF-beta 1) Protein, CF

Formulations:
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
246-LP-025/CF
Product Details
Citations (19)
FAQs
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Recombinant Human LAP (TGF-beta 1) Protein, CF Summary

Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its ability to inhibit TGF-beta 1 activity on HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The ED50 for this effect is 50-300 ng/mL in the presence of 1 ng/mL of Recombinant Human TGF‑ beta 1 (Catalog # 240-B).
Source
Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf 21 (baculovirus)-derived human LAP (TGF-beta 1) protein
Leu30-Arg278 (Cys33Ser)
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Leu30
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Predicted Molecular Mass
27 kDa (monomer)
SDS-PAGE
28-36 kDa, reducing & 60-70 kDa, non-reducing conditions (variably glycosylated)

Product Datasheets

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

246-LP/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

246-LP

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

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Background: LAP (TGF-beta 1)

TGF-  beta 1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) and the closely related TGF-beta 2 and -beta 3 are members of the large TGF-beta  superfamily. TGF‑  beta proteins are highly pleiotropic cytokines that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (1‑3). Human TGF-beta 1 cDNA encodes a 390 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein (4). A furin-like convertase processes the proprotein within the trans-Golgi to generate an N-terminal 249 aa latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a C-terminal 112 aa mature TGF-  beta 1 (4‑6). Disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-beta 1 remain non-covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF-beta 1 complex (4‑8). Purified LAP is also capable of associating with active TGF-beta with high affinity, and can neutralize TGF-beta activity (9). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (5‑7). TGF-beta activation from latency is controlled both spatially and temporally, by multiple pathways that include actions of proteases such as plasmin and MMP9, and/or by thrombospondin 1 or selected integrins (5, 8). The LAP portion of human TGF-beta 1 shares 91%, 92%, 85%, 86% and 88% aa identity with porcine, canine, mouse, rat and equine TGF-beta 1 LAP, respectively, while mature human TGF-beta 1 portion shares 100% aa identity with porcine, canine and bovine TGF-beta 1, and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat and equine TGF-beta 1. Although different isoforms of TGF-beta are naturally associated with their own distinct LAPs, the TGF-beta 1 LAP is capable of complexing with, and inactivating, all other human TGF-beta isoforms and those of most other species (9). Mutations within the LAP are associated with Camurati-Engelmann disease, a rare sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by inappropriate presence of active TGF-beta 1 (10).

References
  1. Dunker, N. & K. Krieglstein (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
  2. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
  3. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
  4. Derynck, R. et al. (1985) Nature 316:701.
  5. Dabovic, B. and D.B. Rifkin (2008) “TGF-beta Bioavailability” in The TGF-beta Family. Derynck, R. and K. Miyazono (eds): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, p. 179.
  6. Brunner, A.M. et al. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264:13660.
  7. Miyazono, K. et al. (1991) EMBO J. 10:1091.
  8. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
  9. Miller, D.M. et al. (1992) Mol. Endocrinol. 6:694.
  10. Janssens, K. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:7718.
Long Name
Latency-associated Peptide
Entrez Gene IDs
7040 (Human)
Alternate Names
CED; DPD1; LAP (TGFbeta 1); LAP (TGF-beta 1); LAP; TGFB; TGFB1; TGFbeta; transforming growth factor beta 1

Citations for Recombinant Human LAP (TGF-beta 1) Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

19 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) Accelerates Collagen Degradation and Clearance from Lungs in Mice
    Authors: MH Fan, Q Zhu, HH Li, HJ Ra, S Majumdar, DL Gulick, JA Jerome, DH Madsen, M Christofid, DW Speicher, WW Bachovchin, C Feghali-Bo, E Puré
    J. Biol. Chem., 2016;291(15):8070-89.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. The TGF-? inhibitory activity of antibody 37E1B5 depends on its H-CDR2 glycan
    Authors: Lynne A Murray
    MAbs, 2016;0(0):0.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. PSG9 Stimulates Increase in FoxP3+ Regulatory T-Cells through the TGF-?1 Pathway
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(7):e0158050.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Surface Plasmon Resonance
  4. The alphavbeta6 integrin is transferred intercellularly via exosomes.
    Authors: Fedele C, Singh A, Zerlanko B, Iozzo R, Languino L
    J Biol Chem, 2015;290(8):4545-51.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. Induction and activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta1 are carried out by two distinct domains of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 1 (PSG1).
    Authors: Ballesteros A, Mentink-Kane M, Warren J, Kaplan G, Dveksler G
    J Biol Chem, 2015;290(7):4422-31.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Surface Plasmon Resonance
  6. alpha5 and alphav integrins cooperate to regulate vascular smooth muscle and neural crest functions in vivo.
    Authors: Turner C, Badu-Nkansah K, Crowley D, van der Flier A, Hynes R
    Development, 2015;142(4):797-808.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  7. Antimony resistant Leishmania donovani but not sensitive ones drives greater frequency of potent T-regulatory cells upon interaction with human PBMCs: role of IL-10 and TGF-beta in early immune response.
    Authors: Guha R, Das S, Ghosh J, Sundar S, Dujardin J, Roy S
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2014;8(7):e2995.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. Integrin alphavbeta6 promotes an osteolytic program in cancer cells by upregulating MMP2.
    Authors: Dutta A, Li J, Lu H, Akech J, Pratap J, Wang T, Zerlanko B, FitzGerald T, Jiang Z, Birbe R, Wixted J, Violette S, Stein J, Stein G, Lian J, Languino L
    Cancer Res, 2014;74(5):1598-608.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  9. Mesenchymal stromal cells induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human colorectal cancer cells through the expression of surface-bound TGF-beta.
    Authors: Mele V, Muraro M, Calabrese D, Pfaff D, Amatruda N, Amicarella F, Kvinlaug B, Bocelli-Tyndall C, Martin I, Resink T, Heberer M, Oertli D, Terracciano L, Spagnoli G, Iezzi G
    Int J Cancer, 2014;134(11):2583-94.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. Kidney transplantation: analysis of the expression and T cell-mediated activation of latent TGF-beta.
    Authors: Willet J, Pichitsiri W, Jenkinson S, Brain J, Wood K, Alhasan A, Spielhofer J, Robertson H, Ali S, Kirby J
    J Leukoc Biol, 2013;93(4):471-8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  11. Overexpression of TGF-ß 1 gene induces cell surface localized glucose-regulated protein 78-associated latency-associated peptide/TGF-ß.
    Authors: Oida T, Weiner HL
    J. Immunol., 2012;185(6):3529-35.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: immunization
  12. Nonmyelinating Schwann cells maintain hematopoietic stem cell hibernation in the bone marrow niche.
    Authors: Yamazaki S, Ema H, Karlsson G, Yamaguchi T, Miyoshi H, Shioda S, Taketo MM, Karlsson S, Iwama A, Nakauchi H
    Cell, 2011;147(5):1146-58.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  13. Analysis of adhesion molecules, target cells, and role of IL-2 in human FOXP3+ regulatory T cell suppressor function.
    Authors: Tran DQ, Glass DD, Uzel G, Darnell DA, Spalding C, Holland SM, Shevach EM
    J. Immunol., 2009;182(5):2929-38.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  14. Antibody-mediated blockade of integrin alpha v beta 6 inhibits tumor progression in vivo by a transforming growth factor-beta-regulated mechanism.
    Authors: Van Aarsen LA, Leone DR, Ho S, Dolinski BM, McCoon PE, LePage DJ, Kelly R, Heaney G, Rayhorn P, Reid C, Simon KJ, Horan GS, Tao N, Gardner HA, Skelly MM, Gown AM, Thomas GJ, Weinreb PH, Fawell SE, Violette SM
    Cancer Res., 2008;68(2):561-70.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  15. Human anti-inflammatory macrophages induce Foxp3+ GITR+ CD25+ regulatory T cells, which suppress via membrane-bound TGFbeta-1.
    Authors: Savage ND, De Boer T, Walburg KV, Joosten SA, van Meijgaarden K, Geluk A, Ottenhoff TH
    J. Immunol., 2008;181(3):2220-6.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  16. The aberrant methylation of TSP1 suppresses TGF-beta1 activation in colorectal cancer.
    Authors: Rojas A, Meherem S, Kim YH, Washington MK, Willis JE, Markowitz SD, Grady WM
    Int. J. Cancer, 2008;123(1):14-21.
    Species: Porcine
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  17. Cord blood CD4(+)CD25(+)-derived T regulatory cell lines express FoxP3 protein and manifest potent suppressor function.
    Authors: Godfrey WR, Spoden DJ, Ge YG, Baker SR, Liu B, Levine BL, June CH, Blazar BR, Porter SB
    Blood, 2005;105(2):750-8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
    Applications: Bioassay
  18. TGF-beta 1 plays an important role in the mechanism of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell activity in both humans and mice.
    Authors: Kitani A, Fuss I, Pedersen A, Nawata H
    J. Immunol., 2004;172(2):834-42.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  19. Latency-associated peptide prevents skin fibrosis in murine sclerodermatous graft-versus-host disease, a model for human scleroderma.
    Authors: Zhang Y, McCormick LL, Gilliam AC
    J. Invest. Dermatol., 2003;121(4):713-9.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo

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