Recombinant Human LAP (TGF-beta 1) Protein, CF

  (18 citations)     
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Citations (18)
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  • Purity
    >97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured by its ability to inhibit TGF-beta 1 activity on HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The ED50 for this effect is 50-300 ng/mL in the presence of 1 ng/mL of Recombinant Human TGF‑ beta 1 (Catalog # 240-B).
  • Source
    Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf 21 (baculovirus)-derived human LAP (TGF-beta 1) protein
    Leu30-Arg278 (Cys33Ser)
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Leu30
  • Structure / Form
    Disulfide-linked homodimer
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    27 kDa (monomer)
  • SDS-PAGE
    28-36 kDa, reducing & 60-70 kDa, non-reducing conditions (variably glycosylated)
Product Datasheets

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Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
246-LP/CF
 
246-LP
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
 
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
 
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
 
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
 
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: LAP (TGF-beta 1)

TGF-  beta 1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) and the closely related TGF-beta 2 and -beta 3 are members of the large TGF-beta  superfamily. TGF‑  beta proteins are highly pleiotropic cytokines that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (1‑3). Human TGF-beta 1 cDNA encodes a 390 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 29 aa signal peptide and a 361 aa proprotein (4). A furin-like convertase processes the proprotein within the trans-Golgi to generate an N-terminal 249 aa latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a C-terminal 112 aa mature TGF-  beta 1 (4‑6). Disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-beta 1 remain non-covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF-beta 1 complex (4‑8). Purified LAP is also capable of associating with active TGF-beta with high affinity, and can neutralize TGF-beta activity (9). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (5‑7). TGF-beta activation from latency is controlled both spatially and temporally, by multiple pathways that include actions of proteases such as plasmin and MMP9, and/or by thrombospondin 1 or selected integrins (5, 8). The LAP portion of human TGF-beta 1 shares 91%, 92%, 85%, 86% and 88% aa identity with porcine, canine, mouse, rat and equine TGF-beta 1 LAP, respectively, while mature human TGF-beta 1 portion shares 100% aa identity with porcine, canine and bovine TGF-beta 1, and 99% aa identity with mouse, rat and equine TGF-beta 1. Although different isoforms of TGF-beta are naturally associated with their own distinct LAPs, the TGF-beta 1 LAP is capable of complexing with, and inactivating, all other human TGF-beta isoforms and those of most other species (9). Mutations within the LAP are associated with Camurati-Engelmann disease, a rare sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by inappropriate presence of active TGF-beta 1 (10).

  • References:
    1. Dunker, N. & K. Krieglstein (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
    2. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
    3. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
    4. Derynck, R. et al. (1985) Nature 316:701.
    5. Dabovic, B. and D.B. Rifkin (2008) “TGF-beta Bioavailability” in The TGF-beta Family. Derynck, R. and K. Miyazono (eds): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, p. 179.
    6. Brunner, A.M. et al. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264:13660.
    7. Miyazono, K. et al. (1991) EMBO J. 10:1091.
    8. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
    9. Miller, D.M. et al. (1992) Mol. Endocrinol. 6:694.
    10. Janssens, K. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:7718.
  • Long Name:
    Latency-associated Peptide
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    7040 (Human)
  • Alternate Names:
    LAP (TGFbeta 1); LAP (TGF-beta 1)
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

18 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) Accelerates Collagen Degradation and Clearance from Lungs in Mice
    Authors: MH Fan, Q Zhu, HH Li, HJ Ra, S Majumdar, DL Gulick, JA Jerome, DH Madsen, M Christofid, DW Speicher, WW Bachovchin, C Feghali-Bo, E Puré
    J. Biol. Chem., 2016;291(15):8070-89.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Type: Recombinant Protein
    Application: Bioassay
  2. PSG9 Stimulates Increase in FoxP3+ Regulatory T-Cells through the TGF-?1 Pathway
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(7):e0158050.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Protein
    Application: Surface Plasmon Resonance
  3. Induction and activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta1 are carried out by two distinct domains of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 1 (PSG1).
    Authors: Ballesteros A, Mentink-Kane M, Warren J, Kaplan G, Dveksler G
    J Biol Chem, 2015;290(7):4422-31.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Protein
    Application: Surface Plasmon Resonance
  4. alpha5 and alphav integrins cooperate to regulate vascular smooth muscle and neural crest functions in vivo.
    Authors: Turner C, Badu-Nkansah K, Crowley D, van der Flier A, Hynes R
    Development, 2015;142(4):797-808.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  5. The alphavbeta6 integrin is transferred intercellularly via exosomes.
    Authors: Fedele C, Singh A, Zerlanko B, Iozzo R, Languino L
    J Biol Chem, 2015;290(8):4545-51.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  6. Mesenchymal stromal cells induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human colorectal cancer cells through the expression of surface-bound TGF-beta.
    Authors: Mele V, Muraro M, Calabrese D, Pfaff D, Amatruda N, Amicarella F, Kvinlaug B, Bocelli-Tyndall C, Martin I, Resink T, Heberer M, Oertli D, Terracciano L, Spagnoli G, Iezzi G
    Int J Cancer, 2014;134(11):2583-94.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  7. Integrin alphavbeta6 promotes an osteolytic program in cancer cells by upregulating MMP2.
    Authors: Dutta A, Li J, Lu H, Akech J, Pratap J, Wang T, Zerlanko B, FitzGerald T, Jiang Z, Birbe R, Wixted J, Violette S, Stein J, Stein G, Lian J, Languino L
    Cancer Res, 2014;74(5):1598-608.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  8. Antimony resistant Leishmania donovani but not sensitive ones drives greater frequency of potent T-regulatory cells upon interaction with human PBMCs: role of IL-10 and TGF-beta in early immune response.
    Authors: Guha R, Das S, Ghosh J, Sundar S, Dujardin J, Roy S
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2014;8(7):e2995.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  9. Kidney transplantation: analysis of the expression and T cell-mediated activation of latent TGF-beta.
    Authors: Willet J, Pichitsiri W, Jenkinson S, Brain J, Wood K, Alhasan A, Spielhofer J, Robertson H, Ali S, Kirby J
    J Leukoc Biol, 2013;93(4):471-8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  10. Overexpression of TGF-ß 1 gene induces cell surface localized glucose-regulated protein 78-associated latency-associated peptide/TGF-ß.
    Authors: Oida T, Weiner HL
    J. Immunol., 2012;185(6):3529-35.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: immunization
  11. Nonmyelinating Schwann cells maintain hematopoietic stem cell hibernation in the bone marrow niche.
    Authors: Yamazaki S, Ema H, Karlsson G, Yamaguchi T, Miyoshi H, Shioda S, Taketo MM, Karlsson S, Iwama A, Nakauchi H
    Cell, 2011;147(5):1146-58.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
  12. Analysis of adhesion molecules, target cells, and role of IL-2 in human FOXP3+ regulatory T cell suppressor function.
    Authors: Tran DQ, Glass DD, Uzel G, Darnell DA, Spalding C, Holland SM, Shevach EM
    J. Immunol., 2009;182(5):2929-38.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  13. Antibody-mediated blockade of integrin alpha v beta 6 inhibits tumor progression in vivo by a transforming growth factor-beta-regulated mechanism.
    Authors: Van Aarsen LA, Leone DR, Ho S, Dolinski BM, McCoon PE, LePage DJ, Kelly R, Heaney G, Rayhorn P, Reid C, Simon KJ, Horan GS, Tao N, Gardner HA, Skelly MM, Gown AM, Thomas GJ, Weinreb PH, Fawell SE, Violette SM
    Cancer Res., 2008;68(2):561-70.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  14. Human anti-inflammatory macrophages induce Foxp3+ GITR+ CD25+ regulatory T cells, which suppress via membrane-bound TGFbeta-1.
    Authors: Savage ND, De Boer T, Walburg KV, Joosten SA, van Meijgaarden K, Geluk A, Ottenhoff TH
    J. Immunol., 2008;181(3):2220-6.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  15. The aberrant methylation of TSP1 suppresses TGF-beta1 activation in colorectal cancer.
    Authors: Rojas A, Meherem S, Kim YH, Washington MK, Willis JE, Markowitz SD, Grady WM
    Int. J. Cancer, 2008;123(1):14-21.
    Species: Porcine
    Sample Type: Protein
    Application: Bioassay
  16. Cord blood CD4(+)CD25(+)-derived T regulatory cell lines express FoxP3 protein and manifest potent suppressor function.
    Authors: Godfrey WR, Spoden DJ, Ge YG, Baker SR, Liu B, Levine BL, June CH, Blazar BR, Porter SB
    Blood, 2005;105(2):750-8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    Application: Bioassay
  17. TGF-beta 1 plays an important role in the mechanism of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell activity in both humans and mice.
    Authors: Kitani A, Fuss I, Pedersen A, Nawata H
    J. Immunol., 2004;172(2):834-42.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  18. Latency-associated peptide prevents skin fibrosis in murine sclerodermatous graft-versus-host disease, a model for human scleroderma.
    Authors: Zhang Y, McCormick LL, Gilliam AC
    J. Invest. Dermatol., 2003;121(4):713-9.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: In Vivo
    Application: In Vivo
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Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 Protein, CF

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Recombinant Human TGF-beta 1 Protein

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