Recombinant Human VCAM-1/CD106 His-tag Protein, CF Summary
Phe25-Glu698, with a C-terminal 6-His tag
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Recombinant Human VCAM-1/CD106 His-tag (Catalog # 10201-VC) supports the adhesion of U937 human histiocytic lymphoma cells. The ED50 for this effect is 0.5-3 μg/mL.
2 μg/lane of Recombinant Human VCAM-1/CD106 His-tag (Catalog # 10201-VC) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Blue staining, showing bands at 80-110 kDa.
VCAM-1, also known as CD106, is an immunoglobulin (Ig)-like adhesion molecule that is mainly expressed in endothelial cells and other cell types including macrophages, dendritic cells, neurons, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and oocytes (1, 2). It plays a critical role in inflammation by recruiting leukocytes to acute and chronic inflammation sites (3, 4). Alternatively-spliced forms are known to occur, but the most common form is a type I transmembrane protein with a 674 aa extracellular domain (ECD) that includes seven C2-type immunoglobulin domains, a 22 aa transmembrane segment, and a 19 amino acid (aa) cytoplasmic tail. Within the ECD, human VCAM-1 shares 75% and 76% aa sequence identity with the mouse and rat VCAM-1, respectively. VCAM-1 binds to leukocyte integrins alpha 4 beta 1 (VLA-4) and alpha 4 beta 7. During the inflammatory adhesion mechanism, activated integrins halt rolling leukocytes and attach them firmly to the vascular endothelium. The VCAM-1:VLA-4/ alpha 4 beta 7 interaction is also thought to be involved in the extravasation of white blood cells through the blood vessel wall to sites of inflammation (5). ELISA techniques have shown that detectable levels of soluble VCAM-1 are present in the biological fluids of apparently normal individuals, but elevated levels of serum VCAM-1 are indicative of future Atrial Fibrillation incident as well as liver disease (6, 7). Tumor cells use overexpression of VCAM-1 as means of escaping immune surveillance (8).
- Vonderheide, R.H. et al. (1994) J. Cell Biol. 125:215.
- Cybulsky, M.I. et al. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:7859.
- Luster, A.D. et al. (2005) Nat. Immunol. 6:1182.
- Osborn, L. et al. (1989) Cell 59:1203
- Langer. H.F. et al. 2009. J Cell Mol Med. 13:1211.
- Willeit.K. et al. 2017. JAMA Cardiol. 2:516.
- Lo Iacono.O. et al. 2008. Liver Int. 28:1129.
- Wu.T.C. et al. 2007. Cancer Research. 67:6003
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