Recombinant Mouse Dkk-2 Protein

Carrier Free

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
2435-DKB-010/CF

With Carrier

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
2435-DKB-010
Recombinant Mouse Dkk-2 Protein Bioactivity
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Recombinant Mouse Dkk-2 Protein Summary

Product Specifications

Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its ability to inhibit Wnt induced TCF reporter activity in HEK293 human embryonic kidney cells. Recombinant Mouse Wnt-3a (Catalog # 1324-WN) induces a dose responsive increase in Wnt reporter activity in HEK293 cells. Recombinant Mouse Dkk-2 (Catalog # 2435-DKB) inhibits a constant dose of 100 ng/mL of Recombinant Mouse Wnt-3a Recombinant Mouse Wnt‑3a (Catalog # 1324-WN) . The ED50 for this effect is 100-600 ng/mL.
Source
Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf 21 (baculovirus)-derived mouse Dkk-2 protein
Ser26-Ile259, with Leu35Pro substitution and a C-terminal 10-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Ser26
Predicted Molecular Mass
27 kDa
SDS-PAGE
29-35 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

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2435-DKB (with carrier)

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2435-DKB/CF (carrier free)

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

2435-DKB

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

2435-DKB/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Scientific Data

Bioactivity Recombinant Mouse Dkk-2 Protein Bioactivity View Larger

Recombinant Mouse Wnt-3a (Catalog # 1324-WN) induces a dose responsive increase in Wnt reporter activity in HEK293 cells (green circles). Recombinant Mouse Dkk-2 (Catalog # 2435-DKB) inhibits a constant dose of 100 ng/mL of Recombinant Mouse Wnt-3a. The ED50 for this effect is 100-600 ng/mL (orange circles).

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

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Background: Dkk-2

Dickkopf related protein 2 (Dkk-2) is a member of the Dickkopf family of secreted Wnt modulators (1-3). Dkk proteins contain a signal peptide and two conserved cysteine-rich domains that are separated by a linker region. The second cysteine-rich domain mediates Dkk-2 binding activities, and its interaction with LRP beta propellers has been mapped (2-4, 7). The 226 aa, ~35 kDa mature mouse Dkk-2 shares  99%, 96%, 96%, 96% and 94% aa identity with rat, human, dog, horse and cow Dkk-2, respectively, and can activate the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in Xenopus embryos (5). Dkk proteins modify Wnt engagement of a receptor complex composed of a Frizzled protein and a low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, either LRP5 or LRP6 (3). When LRP6 is over-expressed, direct high-affinity binding of Dkk-2 to LRP can enhance canonical Wnt signaling (6-8). However, when Dkk-2 and LRP6 form a ternary complex with Kremen2, Wnt signaling is inhibited due to internalization of Dkk-2/LRP6/Krm2 complexes (9, 10). Thus, depending on the cellular context, Dkk-2 can either activate or inhibit canonical Wnt signaling (3). In contrast, binding of Dkk-1 or Dkk-4 to LRP is consistently antagonistic (3). Dkk proteins are expressed in mesenchymal tissues and control epithelial transformations. Dkk-2 expression has been studied most in bone and eye, although it is expressed as early as periimplantation in mice (11). Mouse Dkk-1 or Dkk-2 deficiencies have opposite effects on bone homeostasis, despite down-regulating Wnt antagonism in both cases (12, 13). Dkk-2 expression is induced by Wnts in bone, and is thought to enhance bone density by promoting terminal differentiation of osteoblasts and mineral deposition (12). In contrast, Dkk-1 negatively regulates late osteoblast proliferation, which limits bone density (13). Dkk-2-deficient mice are blind, exhibiting faulty differentiation of corneal epithelium and ectopic blood vessels in the periocular mesenchyme (14, 15).

References
  1. Monaghan, A.P. et al. (1999) Mech. Dev. 87:45.
  2. Krupnik, V.E. et al. (1999) Gene 238:301.
  3. Niehrs, C. (2006) Oncogene 25:7469.
  4. Chen, L. et al. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283:23364.
  5. Wu, W. et al. (2000) Current Biol. 10:1611.
  6. Mao, B. et al. (2001) Nature 411:321.
  7. Li, L. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277:5977.
  8. Brott, B. and S.Y. Sokol (2002) Mol. Cell. Biol. 22:6100.
  9. Mao, B. et al. (2002) Nature 417:664.
  10. Mao, B. and C. Niehrs (2003) Gene 302:179.
  11. Zhang, Y. et al. (2009) J. Reprod. Dev. 55:17.
  12. Li, X. et al. (2005) Nat. Genet. 37:945.
  13. van der Horst, G. et al. (2005) J. Bone Miner. Res. 20:1867.
  14. Mukhopadhyay, M. et al. (2006) Development 133:2149.
  15. Gage, P.J. et al. (2008) Dev. Biol. 317:310.
Long Name
Dickkopf-2
Entrez Gene IDs
27123 (Human); 56811 (Mouse)
Alternate Names
dickkopf (Xenopus laevis) homolog 2; dickkopf 2; dickkopf homolog 2 (Xenopus laevis); dickkopf related protein-2; dickkopf-2; dickkopf-related protein 2; Dkk2; Dkk-2; hDkk-2

Citation for Recombinant Mouse Dkk-2 Protein

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

1 Citation: Showing 1 - 1

  1. Myh11 Lineage Corneal Endothelial Cells and ASCs Populate Corneal Endothelium
    Authors: BA Corliss, HC Ray, C Mathews, K Fitzgerald, RW Doty, CM Smolko, H Shariff, SM Peirce, PA Yates
    Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 2019-12-02;60(15):5095-5103.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay

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