Recombinant Mouse TLR2 Fc Chimera Protein, CF Summary
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CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS, NaCl and PEG 3350.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
The Toll-like family of molecules are a group of integral membrane proteins that serve as pattern recognition receptors for microbial pathogens (1 - 4). To date, there are at least eleven mouse and ten human members that activate the innate immune system following exposure to a variety of microbial species (1, 3). All Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are type I transmembrane (TM) proteins that exist either in the plasma membrane or in the membranes of endosomal structures (where they bind intracellular nucleic acids) (3). All TLRs also contain a large number of extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and a cytoplasmic tail with a Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Mouse Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) is a 97 kDa, 760 amino acid (aa) glycoprotein that contains a 563 aa extracellular region, a 21 aa TM segment, and a 176 aa cytoplasmic domain (5, 6). The extracellular region contains 16 leucine-rich repeats, while the cytoplasmic tail shows one 146 aa TIR domain. The receptor is expressed on a number of cell types including T cells ( alpha beta and gamma δ), monocytes, dendritic cells, neutrophils, B cells, endothelial cells, mast cells, NK cells, macrophages and hepatocytes (1, 4, 5, 7, 8). TLR2 functions as part of a heterodimeric complex with either TLR1 or TLR6 (1, 3, 4). These complexes recognize lipoproteins and glycolipids from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as mycoplasma and yeast. TLR2/TLR1 heterodimers recognize triacylated lipopeptides from a variety of microorganisms. The TLR2/TLR6 heterodimer preferentially recognizes diacylated lipopeptides (9). Biglycan is also known to activate TLR2, but the context is unclear (8). Notably, in human, TLR2 also dimerizes with TLR10. But the TLR10 gene in mouse (but not rat) is mutationally inactive, and thus this complex is nonfunctional (10). Upon ligand recognition, TLR2 delivers an activating signal via the associated adapter molecules, MyD88 and TIRAP (1, 11). Activation via TLR2 also results in production of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, and MIP-2 (1, 3). The extracellular region of mouse TLR2 is 89%, 67%, 81%, and 65% aa identical to the equivalent region in rat, human, hamster and canine, respectively.
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- Hasan, U. et al. (2005) J. Immunol. 174:2942.
- Yamamoto M. et al. (2002) Nature 420:324.
Citations for Recombinant Mouse TLR2 Fc Chimera Protein, CF
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 6
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AIM/CD5L attenuates DAMPs in the injured brain and thereby ameliorates ischemic stroke
Authors: N Maehara, K Taniguchi, A Okuno, H Ando, A Hirota, Z Li, CT Wang, S Arai, T Miyazaki
Cell Reports, 2021;36(11):109693.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
HBeAg mediates inflammatory functions of macrophages by TLR2 contributing to hepatic fibrosis
Authors: X Xie, H Lv, C Liu, X Su, Z Yu, S Song, H Bian, M Tian, C Qin, J Qi, Q Zhu
Bmc Medicine, 2021;19(1):247.
Sample Types: Cell Lysate
Applications: Western Blot Control
TLR2/MyD88 pathway-dependent regulation of dendritic cells by dengue virus promotes antibody-dependent enhancement via Th2-biased immunity
Authors: JA George, SB Kim, JY Choi, AM Patil, FMA Hossain, E Uyangaa, J Hur, SY Park, JH Lee, K Kim, SK Eo
Sample Types: Protein
Structural basis for inhibition of TLR2 by staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 3 (SSL3).
Authors: Koymans K, Feitsma L, Brondijk T, Aerts P, Lukkien E, Lossl P, van Kessel K, de Haas C, van Strijp J, Huizinga E
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2015;112(35):11018-23.
Species: Bacteria - Staphylococcus aureus
Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
Toll-like receptor 2-mediated interleukin-8 expression in gingival epithelial cells by the Tannerella forsythia leucine-rich repeat protein BspA.
Authors: Onishi S, Honma K, Liang S, Stathopoulou P, Kinane D, Hajishengallis G, Sharma A
Infect. Immun., 2007;76(1):198-205.
Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
Applications: ELISA (Capture)
Soluble TLR2 reduces inflammation without compromising bacterial clearance by disrupting TLR2 triggering.
Authors: Raby A, Le Bouder E, Colmont C, Davies J, Richards P, Coles B, George C, Jones S, Brennan P, Topley N, Labeta M
J Immunol, 0;183(1):506-17.
Species: Staphylococcus epidermidis
Sample Types: Whole Cells
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