Catalog Number: 1202
Chemical Name: 4-[5-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-1H-imidazol-4-yl]pyridine
Biological Activity
Selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK (IC50 values are 50 and 500 nM for SAPK2a/p38 and SAPK2b/p38β2 respectively). Displays 100-500-fold selectivity over LCK, GSK-3β and PKBα. Shown to inhibit IL-2-induced T cell proliferation, cyclooxygenase-1 and -2, and thromboxane synthase. Enhances clonal growth of skin epithelial progenitor cells; stimulates neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation. Essential component of medium for maintaining stem cells in naive pluripotent state.

Available as part of the MAPK Cascade Inhibitor Tocriset™ and MAPK Inhibitor Tocriset™. Water-soluble Salt also available.

Technical Data
  • M.Wt:
    377.44
  • Formula:
    C21H16FN3OS
  • Solubility:
    Soluble to 25 mM in DMSO and to 100 mM in 1eq. HCl
  • Purity:
    >98%
  • Storage:
    Desiccate at +4°C
  • CAS No:
    152121-47-6
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis. All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
Additional Information
Licensing Caveats:
Sold with the permission of GlaxoSmithKline
Other Product-Specific Information:
Background References
  1. Specificity and mechanism of action of some commonly used protein kinase inhibitors.
    Davies et al.
    Biochem.J., 2000;351:95
  2. Direct inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 by the kinase inhibitors SB 203580 and PD 98059.
    Borsch-Haubold et al.
    J.Biol.Chem., 1998;273:28766
  3. Role for p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in platelet aggregation caused by collagen on a thromboxane analogue.
    Saklatvala et al.
    J.Biol.Chem., 1996;271:6586
  4. Inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase enhance proliferation of mouse neural stem cells.
    Sato et al.
    J.Neurosci.Res., 2008;86:2179
  5. Derivation of novel human ground state naive pluripotent stem cells.
    Gafni et al.
    Nature, 2013;504:282
Citations:

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for SB 203580 include:

63 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. TRIB3 downregulation enhances doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in gastric cancer cells.
    Authors: Wu
    Arch Biochem Biophys 2017;622:26
  2. Cannabinoid receptor 1 contributes to sprouted innervation in endometrial ectopic growth through mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.
    Authors: Han
    Brain Res 2017;1663:132
  3. The PDGF-BB-SOX7 axis-modulated IL-33 in pericytes and stromal cells promotes metastasis through tumour-associated macrophages.
    Authors: Yang Et al.
    Cardiorenal Med 2016;7:11385
  4. 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid lethality for neuroblastoma cells via de-regulating the Beclin-1/Bcl-2 complex and inducing apoptosis.
    Authors: Rahman Et al.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 2016;117:97
  5. STAT3 signaling contributes to the high effector activities of interleukin-15-derived dendritic cells.
    Authors: Okada Et al.
    Int J Mol Med 2015;93:461
  6. Hyperphosphate-Induced Myocardial Hypertrophy through the GATA-4/NFAT-3 Signaling Pathway Is Attenuated by ERK Inhibitor Treatment.
    Authors: Liu Et al.
    Biogerontology 2015;5:79
  7. Analysis of the anti-proliferative and the pro-apoptotic efficacy of Syk inhibition in multiple myeloma.
    Authors: Koerber Et al.
    Mol Vis 2015;4:21
  8. MAPK signaling downstream to TLR4 contributes to paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy.
    Authors: Li Et al.
    Brain Behav.Immun. 2015;49:255
  9. Developmental alterations in centrosome integrity contribute to the post-mitotic state of mammalian cardiomyocytes.
    Authors: Zebrowski Et al.
    Mol Vis 2015;4
  10. MFG-E8 inhibits neutrophil migration through αvβ3-integrin-dependent MAP kinase activation.
    Authors: Aziz Et al.
    Elife 2015;36:18
  11. Regulation of the hyperosmotic induction of aquaporin 5 and VEGF in retinal pigment epithelial cells: involvement of NFAT5.
    Authors: Hollborn Et al.
    Oncotarget 2015;21:360
  12. Gene expression regulation in retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by viral RNA and viral/bacterial DNA.
    Authors: Brosig Et al.
    Immunol Cell Biol 2015;21:1000
  13. P2X7 Receptor Regulates Internalization of Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 by Human Macrophages That Promotes Intracellular Pathogen Clearance.
    Authors: Tang Et al.
    J Immunol 2015;195:1191
  14. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor-CXCR4 is the dominant chemotactic axis in human mesenchymal stem cell recruitment to tumors.
    Authors: Lourenco Et al.
    J Immunol 2015;194:3463
  15. Nijmegen breakage syndrome fibroblasts expressing the C-terminal truncated NBN(p70) protein undergo p38/MK2-dependent premature senescence.
    Authors: Davis Et al.
    Exp Hematol Oncol 2015;16:43
  16. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Induces Neutrophil Apoptosis through the p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients.
    Authors: Yang Et al.
    PLoS One 2015;10:e0120515
  17. Differential effects of the Toll-like receptor 2 agonists, PGN and Pam3CSK4 on anti-IgE induced human mast cell activation.
    Authors: Yu Et al.
    PLoS One 2014;9:e112989
  18. Distinct signalling pathways of murine histamine H1- and H4-receptors expressed at comparable levels in HEK293 cells.
    Authors: Beermann Et al.
    Respir Res 2014;9:e107481
  19. Angiogenic growth factors augment K-Cl cotransporter expression in erythroid cells via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α.
    Authors: Gonsalves Et al.
    Am J Hematol 2014;89:273
  20. AMP-activated protein kinase determines apoptotic sensitivity of cancer cells to ginsenoside-Rh2.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    J Ginseng Res 2014;38:16
  21. Activation of pattern recognition receptors in brown adipocytes induces inflammation and suppresses uncoupling protein 1 expression and mitochondrial respiration.
    Authors: Bae Et al.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2014;306:C918
  22. Cathelicidin LL-37 induces time-resolved release of LTB4 and TXA2 by human macrophages and triggers eicosanoid generation in vivo.
    Authors: Wan Et al.
    FASEB J 2014;28:3456
  23. Network dynamics determine the autocrine and paracrine signaling functions of TNF.
    Authors: Caldwell Et al.
    Genes Dev 2014;28:2120
  24. Decrease of PKB/Akt Phosphorylation is Partially Mediated by SAPK/JNK Activation in Serum-free L6 Myoblasts Starved with Low Glucose.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    J Phys Ther Sci 2014;26:1757
  25. p38 MAPK signaling underlies a cell-autonomous loss of stem cell self-renewal in skeletal muscle of aged mice.
    Authors: Bernet Et al.
    Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2014;20:265
  26. δ-Opioid receptors up-regulate excitatory amino acid transporters in mouse astrocytes.
    Authors: Liang Et al.
    Exp Eye Res 2014;171:5417
  27. Transcriptional regulation of an insulin-sensitizing adipokine adipolin/CTRP12 in adipocytes by Krüppel-like factor 15.
    Authors: Enomoto Et al.
    Mol Med 2013;8:e83183
  28. EI24 regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and tumor progression by suppressing TRAF2-mediated NF-κB activity.
    Authors: Choi Et al.
    PLoS One 2013;4:2383
  29. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) stimulates autophagy in vascular endothelial cells: a potential role for reducing lipid accumulation.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2013;288:22693
  30. p38α senses environmental stress to control innate immune responses via mechanistic target of rapamycin.
    Authors: Katholnig Et al.
    J Immunol 2013;190:1519
  31. An ERK-p38 subnetwork coordinates host cell apoptosis and necrosis during coxsackievirus B3 infection.
    Authors: Jensen Et al.
    J Neurosci 2013;13:67
  32. Inhibition of a novel specific neuroglial integrin signaling pathway increases STAT3-mediated CNTF expression.
    Authors: Keasey Et al.
    Cell Commun Signal 2013;11:35
  33. Gremlin utilizes canonical and non-canonical TGFβ signaling to induce lysyl oxidase (LOX) genes in human trabecular meshwork cells.
    Authors: Sethi Et al.
    J Neuroinflammation 2013;113:117
  34. Rit GTPase regulates a p38 MAPK-dependent neuronal survival pathway.
    Authors: Cai Et al.
    J Cell Mol Med 2012;531:125
  35. Fibroblast growth factor-23 abolishes 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-enhanced duodenal calcium transport in male mice.
    Authors: Khuituan Et al.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2012;302:E903
  36. TAK-1/p38/nNFκB signaling inhibits myoblast differentiation by increasing levels of Activin A.
    Authors: Trendelenburg Et al.
    Skelet Muscle 2012;2:3
  37. Inhibition of α-SMA by the ectodomain of FGFR2c attenuates lung fibrosis.
    Authors: Ju Et al.
    Diabetologia 2012;18:992
  38. Cyclic AMP increases COX-2 expression via mitogen-activated kinase in human myometrial cells.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    PLoS One 2012;16:1447
  39. Inflammatory muscle pain is dependent on the activation of kinin B1 and B2 receptors and intracellular kinase pathways.
    Authors: Meotti Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol 2012;166:1127
  40. The neuropeptide PACAP38 induces dendritic spine remodeling through ADAM10-N-cadherin signaling pathway.
    Authors: Gardoni Et al.
    J Cell Sci 2012;125:1401
  41. Brain microvascular pericytes are immunoactive in culture: cytokine, chemokine, nitric oxide, and LRP-1 expression in response to lipopolysaccharide.
    Authors: Kovac Et al.
    J Biol Chem 2011;8:139
  42. Mitochondrial localized STAT3 is involved in NGF induced neurite outgrowth.
    Authors: Zhou and Too
    Nat Med 2011;6:e21680
  43. Role of TGFβ/Smad signaling in gremlin induction of human trabecular meshwork extracellular matrix proteins.
    Authors: Sethi Et al.
    PLoS One 2011;52:5251
  44. Induction of steroid sulfatase expression by tumor necrosis factor-α through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells.
    Authors: Suh Et al.
    Exp Mol Med 2011;43:646
  45. Reversible differentiation of myofibroblasts by MyoD.
    Authors: Hecker Et al.
    J Neurosci 2011;317:1914
  46. MUC5AC expression through bidirectional communication of Notch and epidermal growth factor receptor pathways.
    Authors: Kang Et al.
    J Immunol 2011;187:222
  47. Thrombin-induced Migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression Are Regulated by MAPK and PI3K Pathways in C6 Glioma Cells.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    Mol Cancer 2011;15:211
  48. TWEAK is a positive regulator of cardiomyocyte proliferation.
    Authors: Novoyatleva Et al.
    Toxins (Basel) 2010;85:681
  49. Redox Factor-1 Inhibits Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression via Inhibiting of p38 MAPK in the A549 Cells.
    Authors: Yoo Et al.
    Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2010;14:139
  50. Cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide induce a proliferative airway smooth muscle phenotype.
    Authors: Pera Et al.
    Exp Cell Res 2010;11:48
  51. miR-155 and its star-form partner miR-155* cooperatively regulate type I interferon production by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
    Authors: Zhou Et al.
    Blood 2010;116:5885
  52. Ethanol augments RANTES/CCL5 expression in rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and human endothelial cells via activation of NF-kappa B, HIF-1 alpha, and AP-1.
    Authors: Yeligar Et al.
    J Immunol 2009;183:5964
  53. The expression of the beta-defensins hBD-2 and hBD-3 is differentially regulated by NF-kappaB and MAPK/AP-1 pathways in an in vitro model of Candida esophagitis.
    Authors: Steubesand Et al.
    BMC Immunol 2009;10:36
  54. Reactive oxygen species stabilize hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha protein and stimulate transcriptional activity via AMP-activated protein kinase in DU145 human prostate cancer cells.
    Authors: Jung Et al.
    Carcinogenesis 2008;29:713
  55. Delayed and persistent ERK1/2 activation is required for 4-hydroxytamoxifen-induced cell death.
    Authors: Zhou Et al.
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007;72:765
  56. Somatic excision demonstrates that c-Jun induces cellular migration and invasion through induction of stem cell factor.
    Authors: Katiyar Et al.
    Mol Cell Biol 2007;27:1356
  57. Paclitaxel-induced nuclear translocation of FOXO3a in breast cancer cells is mediated by c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and Akt.
    Authors: Sunters Et al.
    Cancer Res 2006;66:212
  58. Role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3β) in mediating the cytotoxic effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
    Authors: Alao Et al.
    Steroids 2006;5:40
  59. The role of protein kinase B/Akt in insulin-induced inactivation of phosphorylase in rat hepatocytes.
    Authors: Aiston Et al.
    Cardiovasc Res 2006;49:174
  60. Regulation of nuclear factor κB in the hippocampus by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors.
    Authors: O'Riordan Et al.
    Cell Host Microbe 2006;26:4870
  61. Direct phosphorylation and regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2.
    Authors: Kauppinen Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006;103:7136
  62. Glucose deprivation increases mRNA stability of vascular endothelial growth factor through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in DU145 prostate carcinoma.
    Authors: Yun Et al.
    Nat Commun 2005;280:9963
  63. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase activation is required for metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression in hippocampal area CA1.
    Authors: Gallagher Et al.
    Neurosci Lett 2004;24:4859
Expand to show all 63 Citations

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