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The AP-1 transcription factor is mainly composed of Jun (c-Jun, JunB, JunD), Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, Fra-2) and the Activating Transcription Factor (ATF) family (ATFa, ATF-2, ATF-3) protein dimers. All contain the bZIP basic DNA-binding leucine zipper domain. The ATF family contains at least seven members, which respond to cAMP activation in cells by forming homo and heterodimers that regulate gene expression through binding cAMP response elements (TGACGTCA).