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B Cell Chemotaxis, Migration, and Adhesion

B cell development, activation, and effector functions occur throughout the body in several organs including the bone marrow, spleen, and multiple secondary lymphoid tissues. B cell migration from one tissue or organ to another is mediated by secreted, extracellular matrix-associated, or cell surface factors binding to B cell membrane-localized receptors. In particular, several members of the chemokine and integrin superfamilies are implicated in B cell migration and adhesion. B cells migrate toward increasing chemokine concentration gradients, and integrins on the surfaces of B cells bind and adhere to molecules on other cells or in the extracellular matrix.