Co-stimulatory and Co-inhibitory Molecules

Research has identified a host of co-signaling molecules that modulate the immune responses by T and B lymphocytes. Co-signaling molecules have been shown to have both positive and negative modulatory effects on T and B cell activation. R&D Systems offers products for both co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules in both the Immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) and the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) receptor superfamily. Molecules in the IgSF are further classified as members of the B7/CD28 family, T cell immunoglobulin and mucin (TIM) family, signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family, butyrophilin family, and nectin and nectin-like binding receptor family.