CXCL5/Epithelial Cell-derived Neutrophil-activating Peptide (ENA-78), is a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines. Full-length CXCL5/ENA-78 is 114 amino acids (aa) in length with a predicted molecular weight of 12 kDa. Following the removal of the signal peptide, bioactive CXCL5/ENA-78 is 78 aa in length. CXCL5/ENA-78 can be N-terminally cleaved by Cathepsin G and Chymotrypsin to CXCL5/ENA-74 (74 aa) and CXCL5/ENA-70 (70 aa), which show increased potency relative to CXCL5/ENA-78. While murine LIX was thought to be an ortholog to human CXCL5/ENA-78, genome-wide analysis and a consensus in the field suggests that human CXCL5/ENA-78 does not have a true murine ortholog. CXCL5/ENA-78 is upregulated at sites of inflammation and is expressed by multiple hematopoietic cell types, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and adipocytes. It acts as a chemoattractant for neutrophils, has angiogenic properties, and contributes to cancer progression.