Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell and Differentiation Markers
The pluripotency status of embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be evaluated by the presence of stem cell markers and the ability of stem cells to differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. R&D Systems offers a variety of tools to identify pluripotent stem cells and their differentiated derivatives. For example, pluripotent stem cells characteristically express high levels of specific stem cell markers, such as Oct-3/4 and Nanog. Cells that differentiate into ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal lineages can be assessed by detecting increased expression of Otx2, Brachyury, and SOX17, respectively. Antibodies are also available to detect specialized subpopulations of cells that arise from each of the three lineages such as neural stem cells and pancreatic endoderm.