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Growth/Differentiation Factors (GDFs)

Growth/differentiation factors (GDF-1 to GDF-15) are members of the BMP family of TGF-beta superfamily proteins. They are produced as inactive preproproteins which are then cleaved and assembled into active secreted homodimers. GDF dimers are disulfide-linked with the exception of GDF-3 and -9. GDF proteins are important during embryonic development, particularly in the skeletal, nervous, and muscular systems.